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Table 1 Characteristics of Shanghai urban Chinese adults aged 20–74 years in 1998–2001 and 2007–2008

From: Ten-year changes in the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central obesity among the Chinese adults in urban Shanghai, 1998–2007 — comparison of two cross-sectional surveys

   Men    Women  
Characteristic 1998-2001 2007-2008 p value 1998-2001 2007-2008 p value
(N = 2081) (N = 1599) (N = 2813) (N = 2796)
Mean (SD)      
Age (years) 48.9 (15.1) 50.1 (14.3) 0.005 48.9 (14.1) 49.7 (12.6) <0.001
Height (cm) 169.3 (6.5) 169.3 (6.4) 0.397 157.5 (6.2) 158.3 (5.8) <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 23.7 (3.4) 24.2 (3.3) <0.001 23.8 (3.6) 23.7 (3.4) 0.148
Waist circumference (cm) 82.3 (9.9) 84.9 (9.3) <0.001 76.9 (10.0) 78.2 (9.3) <0.001
Waist-to-height ratio 0.49 (0.1) 0.50 (0.1) <0.001 0.49 (0.1) 0.50 (0.1) 0.017
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.89 (0.07) 0.89 (0.06) 0.107 0.83 (0.08) 0.84 (0.13) 0.748
SBP (mmHg) 125.5 (18.4) 124.5 (15.9) 0.008 121.9 (19.8) 120.4 (16.7) 0.660
DBP (mmHg) 81.1 (10.9) 79.4 (10.0) 0.005 77.6 (10.3) 75.8 (9.4) <0.001
TC (mmol/L) 4.88 (1.10) 4.55 (0.91) <0.001 5.04 (1.18) 4.72 (0.98) <0.001
TG (mmol/L) 1.99 (1.57) 1.91 (1.59) <0.001 1.73 (1.12) 1.55 (1.20) <0.001
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.26 (0.28) 1.19 (0.29) <0.001 1.34 (0.29) 1.39 (0.31) <0.001
LDL-C (mmol/L) 3.34 (0.98) 2.94 (0.77) <0.001 3.43 (1.07) 2.98 (0.81) <0.001
FPG (mmol/L) 5.29 (1.51) 5.68 (1.76) <0.001 5.25 (1.34) 5.47 (1.34) <0.001
2hPG (mmol/L)a 5.43 (1.71) 6.08 (1.63) <0.001 5.56 (1.5) 6.12(1.51) <0.001
n (%)      
Family history of obesity 241 (12.9) 262 (17.3) <0.001 350 (13.9) 517 (19.1) <0.001
Smoking status    0.376    0.003
 Non-smoker 738 (39.4) 619 (38.7)   2436 (96.7) 2746 (98.2)  
 Current smoker 986 (52.7) 837 (52.3)   75 (3) 44 (1.6)  
 Ex-smoker 147 (7.9) 143 (8.9)   8 (0.3) 6 (0.2)  
Dinking status    <0.001    0.314
 Non-drinker 1364 (72.7) 1050 (65.7)   2479 (98.2) 2728 (97.6)  
 Current drinker 506 (27) 494 (30.9)   43 (1.7) 63 (2.3)  
 Ex-drinker 5 (0.3) 55 (3.4)   3 (0.1) 5 (0.2)  
Education    0.046    0.021
 Low 726 (38.8) 663 (42.4)   1409 (56.0) 1421 (51.9)  
 Medium 685 (36.6) 555 (35.5)   815 (32.4) 932 (34.0)  
 High 459 (24.5) 347 (22.2)   290 (11.5) 387 (14.1)  
Income levels    <0.001    <0.001
 Low 332 (17.7) 198 (13.2)   499 (19.8) 393 (15.1)  
 Medium 1164 (62.2) 652 (43.5)   1644 (65.1) 1195 (45.9)  
 High 375 (20.0) 648 (43.3)   382 (15.1) 1014 (39.0)  
  1. Data are expressed as means (standard deviations) or as frequencies (%).
  2. p-values (adjusted for age) for differences between means were calculated using a covariance analysis (ANCOVA, apart from the non-adjusted p-value for age), or using multivariable logistic regression analyses with variables shown as proportions.
  3. a2 hPG was assessed in participants not known to have diabetes.
  4. Abbreviations: BMI: body mass index; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; FPG: fasting plasma glucose; HDL-C: high density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C: low density lipoprotein cholesterol; SBP: systolic blood pressure; TC: total cholesterol; TG: triglyceride; 2 hPG: 2 h post-load plasma glucose.