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Table 2 ELD prevalence by educational attainment, non-sudden deaths*

From: Is educational attainment related to end-of-life decision-making? A large post-mortem survey in Belgium

  Educational attainment     
   Higher   Multivariate  
None/ Lower secondary/   OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) p-value
primary secondary Higher χ2 Lower secondary Higher (secondary)
n = 877 n = 530 n = 544 p-value vs. none/primary vs. none/primary
APS- 39.8 43.2 40.6 .486 1.01 (0.79-1.29) 1.00 (0.77-1.29) .996
APS+ 7.6 13.2 12.7 .001 1.74 (1.20-2.53) 1.52 (1.01-2.28) .012
NTD- 48.7 49.6 57.4 .009 1.08 (0.85-1.36) 1.45 (1.13-1.86) .013
NTD+ 15.3 17.5 18.1 .336 1.25 (0.91-1.71) 1.32 (0.94-1.83) .204
EAS 1.6 3.8 3.9 .016 2.36 (1.07-5.19) 1.88 (0.83-4.26) .103
…requested 3.3 6.2 5.4 .034 1.58 (0.89-2.78) 1.40 (0.77-2.53) .280
…(granted) (49) (62) (72) .246 2.86 (0.78-10.8) 1.70 (0.47-6.21) .284
LAWER 2.8 3.0 2.2 .749 0.96 (0.48-1.95) 0.90 (0.41-1.98) .966
  1. *Figures are percentages adjusted for age and sex, with all non-sudden deaths as standard population, and weighted for representativeness.
  2. More than one end-of-life decision possible for one case.
  3. The p-values in italic indicate significant differences between educational level groups (p < .05, no Bonferoni correction). Variables entered in multivariate logistic regression model: educational attainment, age, sex, marital status, cause of death; no interaction effects.
  4. ELD: end-of-life decision; APS-: intensified alleviation of pain and symptoms taking possible life-shortening into account; APS+: APS with life-shortening co-intended; NTD-: non-treatment decision taking possible life-shortening into account; NTD+: NTD with life-shortening explicitly intended; EAS: euthanasia/assisted suicide; LAWER: life-ending acts without explicit patient request.