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Table 2 Theoretical models of WASH and WASH-related behaviours included in the systematic review

From: The Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: a systematic review of behavioural models and a framework for designing and evaluating behaviour change interventions in infrastructure-restricted settings

Citation Behaviour or outcome of focus Included determinants
Environmental Health Project et al. 2004 [1] Diarrheal prevention Access to hardware: water supply systems, improved sanitation, household technologies
Hygiene promotion: communication, social mobilization, community participation, social marketing, advocacy
Enabling environment: policy improvement, institutional strengthening, community organization, financing, partnerships
Rainey and Harding, 2005 [28] Household water treatment (SODIS) Application of the Health Belief Model, including:
Individual perceptions: perceived severity and perceived susceptibility to disease (diarrhoea)
Modifying factors: demographic variables, socio-economic variables, structural variables; perceived threat of disease; cues to action
Likelihood of Action: perceived benefits of taking action minus perceived barriers, perceived efficacy of action and ability to complete it, likelihood of taking action
Jenkins and Scott, 2007 [32] Sanitation Preference (motivation): dissatisfaction with current practices, awareness of options
Intention: priority of change among competing goals, absence of permanent constraints to acquiring sanitation
Choice: absence of temporary constraints to acquiring sanitation
Curtis et al. 2009 (elaborated in Curtis et al. 2011) [34, 35] Handwashing with soap Planning: teaching children manners
Motivation: disgust, norms, conform, nurture
Habit: train children, tips to train oneself
Social norms
Physical facilities: cues, costs
Biological signs of contamination
Devine, 2009 / Coombes and Devine, 2010 [39, 67] Handwashing (FOAM) and Sanitation (SaniFOAM) Opportunity: access / availability, product attributes, social norms (FOAM), sanction/enforcement (SaniFOAM)
Ability: knowledge, social support (FOAM), skills and self-efficacy, roles and decisions, affordability (SaniFOAM)
Motivations: beliefs and attitudes, outcome expectations, threat, intention (FOAM), values, emotional/physical/social drivers competing priorities, willingness-to-pay (SaniFOAM)
Figueroa and Kincaid, 2010 [37] Household water treatment and storage Individual: knowledge / skills, attitudes, perceived risk and severity, subjective norms, self-image, emotional response, self-efficacy, empathy & trust, social influence, personal advocacy
Household: time allocation, family support, resources, decision making
Community: value for water quality, leadership, action, resources, cohesion
Environmental/context: burden of disease, WASH technologies, community infrastructure, socio-demographic infrastructure, income inequality
Wood et al. 2011 [31] Household water treatment (filters) Awareness: Perceived need, awareness of products, assess value of products and relevance to lives
Action: trial / initial use, sustained use
Maintenance: purchase, sustained use
Mosler, 2012 [36] WASH practices (general) Risk factors: perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, factual knowledge
Attitude factors: Instrumental beliefs, affective beliefs
Normative Factors: descriptive, injunctive, and personal norm
Ability Factors: Action knowledge, self-efficacy, maintenance efficacy, recovery efficacy
Self-Regulation Factors: action control / planning, coping planning, remembering, commitment