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Table 2 The relative effect of education and household income to BMI in five different study periods in women and in men

From: Twenty-five year trends in body mass index by education and income in Finland

WOMEN 1978–1982 1983–1987 1988–1992 1993–1997 1998–2002
  M Adj. M Adj. M Adj. M Adj. M Adj.
Household income
low 24,1 23,9 24,0 23,9 24,0 23,9 24,4 24,3 24,6 24,5
intermediated 23,6 23,5 23,5 23,5 23,8 23,7 24,2 24,2 24,5 24,5
high 23,0 23,1 23,2 23,3 23,5 23,6 23,8 24,0 23,8 24,0
Difference high - low −1,1*** −0,7*** −0,8*** −0,5*** −0,6*** −0,3** −0,6*** −0,3** −0,8*** −0,6***
Difference high - low (%) −4,4 −3,1 −3,4 −2,3 −2,4 −1,3 −2,5 −1,4 −3,1 −2,3
Education
low 24,1 24,0 24,2 24,2 24,4 24,3 24,8 24,7 24,8 24,7
intermediated 23,6 23,6 23,5 23,5 23,8 23,7 24,2 24,2 24,4 24,4
high 22,8 23,0 23,0 23,1 23,2 23,2 23,5 23,6 23,7 23,8
Difference high - low −1,3*** −1,1*** −1,3*** −1,1*** −1,2*** −1,1*** −1,3*** −1,2*** −1,1*** −0,9***
Difference high - low (%) −5,4 −4,5 −5,3 −4,6 −4,9 −4,5 −5,1 −4,8 −4,3 −3,7
MEN
Household income
low 25,0 24,9 25,1 25,0 25,4 25,3 25,7 25,6 25,9 25,8
intermediated 24,9 24,9 25,2 25,2 25,4 25,4 25,6 25,6 25,9 25,8
high 24,9 25,0 25,0 25,1 25,2 25,3 25,6 25,7 25,9 26,0
Difference high - low −0,1 0,1 −0,1 0,1 −0,2* 0 −0,1 0,1 0,1 0,2
Difference high - low (%) −0,5 0,4 −0,3 0,6 −0,8 0 −0,3 0,5 0,2 0,7
Education
low 25,2 25,2 25,4 25,4 25,7 25,7 26,0 26,1 26,2 26,2
intermediated 25,1 25,1 25,2 25,2 25,4 25,4 25,5 25,5 25,7 25,7
high 24,5 24,5 24,7 24,7 24,9 24,9 25,3 25,3 25,8 25,7
Difference high - low −0,7*** −0,7*** −0,7*** −0,8*** −0,8*** −0,8*** −0,7*** −0,7*** −0,4** −0,5***
Difference high - low (%) −2,8 −3 −2,9 −3 −3,2 −3,2 −2,7 −2,8 −1,6 −1,8
  1. M=geometric mean adjusted for age, Adj.=geometric mean adjusted for age and the other SEP-variable, Difference high – low: p-values are calculated assuming linear change in mean log-BMI values for household income and education classes; p-value is the significance of change between ‘low’ category and ‘intermediated’ category and between ‘intermediated’ category and ‘high’ category. Numbers are the difference of BMI between ‘high’ category and ‘low’ category, Difference high - low (%): difference high – low divided by mean BMI in ‘low’ category, P-values: *) <0.05, **) <0.01, ***) <0.001.