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Table 1 Pregnancy and newborn characteristics of the regional cohort (Oppland county) born at term from 1989 to 2010

From: Possible relation between maternal consumption of added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages and birth weight – time trends in a population

Response variable Births 1989–2000 (n = 17848)a Births 2001–2010 (n = 15240)b Comparingj 89-00a vs 01-10b Homogeneous subsetd 2001–2010 (n = 4214)c
Continuous variables Mean (SD) B (per year) e (95 % CI) Mean (SD) B (per year) e (95 % CI) p-value Mean (SD) B (per year) e (95 % CI)
Maternal age (years) 28.1 (4.9) 0.16 (0.13, 0.18) ** 29.4 (5.1) 0.03 (0.00, 0.06) * 0.001 29.1 (4.2) −0.03 (−0.07, 0.02)
Maternal height (cm) naf - 167.5 (6.1) −0.02 (−0.06, 0.01) naf 167.8 (6.1) −0.06 (−0.00, -0.13) *
Pre-pregnant BMIg (kg/m2) naf - 24.7 (4.8) 0.07 (0.04, 0.10) ** naf 22.0 (1.7) −0.01 (−0.03, 0.01)
Gestational weight gain (kg) naf - 14.1 (5.7) −0.12 (−0.08, -0.16) ** naf 14.7 (4.7) −0.11 (−0.06, -0.16) **
Gestational age (days) 279.6 (7.8) 0.10 (0.06, 0.13) ** 279.5 (7.9) −0.12 (−0.08, -0.16) ** 0.522 280.2 (7.3) −0.15 (−0.08, -0.22) **
Birth weight (gram) 3611 (487) 4 (2, 7) ** 3609 (485) −7 (−4, -10) ** 0.687 3607 (435) −12 (−7, -16) **
Birth length (cm) 50.8 (1.9) −0.01 (−0.01, -0.02) ** 50.6 (1.9) −0.01 (−0.00, -0.02) * < 0.001 50.6 (1.8) −0.02 (−0.00, -0.04) *
Ponderal index (kg/m3) 27.6 (2.3) 0.06 (0.05, 0.07) ** 27.8 (2.4) −0,04 (−0.02, -0.05) ** < 0.001 27.7 (2.3) −0.05 (−0.03, -0.08) **
Head circumference (cm) 35.3 (1.4) −0.01 (0.00, -0.01) * 35.5 (1.4) 0.04 (0.04, 0.05) ** < 0.001 35.4 (1.3) 0.03 (0.02, 0.04) **
Binary variables Prevalence (%) OR (per year) h 95 % CI Prevalence (%) OR (per year) h 95 % CI p-value Prevalence (%) OR (per year) h 95 % CI
Multiparity 60.2 1.01 (1.00, 1.02) ** 59.8 0.98 (0.97, 0.99) ** 0.486 59.0 0.96 (0.94, 0.98) **
Teenage mother 2.7 0.94 (0.91, 0.96) ** 2.3 0.98 (0.94, 1.01) 0.014 naf -
Smoker 25.1 0.98 (0.97, 0.99) ** 13.8 0.91 (0.89, 0.92) ** < 0.001 naf -
Diabetes 0.6 1.00 (0.95, 1.07) 1.7 1.13 (1.08, 1.18) ** < 0.001 naf -
Preeclampsia 2.9 1.14 (1.10, 1.17) ** 4.7 1.00 (0.97, 1.03) < 0.001 naf -
Birth after 40 weeks GAi 53.3 1.03 (1.01, 1.04) ** 53.2 0.97 (0.96, 0.98) ** 0.821 58.1 0.95 (0.93, 0.97) **
Induction of labour 4.6 1.16 (1.13, 1.19) ** 13.7 1.09 (1.07, 1.11) ** < 0.001 naf -
Caesarean section 10.0 1.03 (1.02, 1.05) ** 13.9 1.02 (1.00, 1.03) * < 0.001 naf -
Maternal BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 naf - 3.4 0.99 (0.96, 1.02) naf naf -
Maternal BMI > 25 kg/m2 naf - 24.1 1.01 (1.00, 1.02) naf naf -
Maternal BMI > 30 kg/m2 naf - 13.5 1.04 (1.02, 1.06) ** naf naf -
Birth weight < 2500 grams 1.0 1.02 (0.98, 1.07) 1.0 1.02 (0.97, 1.08) 0.549 0.4 1.08 (0.91, 1.29)
Birth weight < 10 percentile 7.5 1.00 (0.99, 1.02) 7.4 1.01 (0.99, 1.04) 0.687 6.1 1.03 (0.99, 1.08)
Birth weight > 90 percentile 11.4 1.03 (1.01, 1.04) ** 11.2 0.98 (0.97, 1.00) 0.671 8.8 0.96 (0.93, 1.00) *
Birth weight > 4500 grams 4.0 1.04 (1.02, 1.07) ** 3.9 0.95 (0.92, 0.98) ** 0.530 2.5 0.93 (0.87, 0.99) *
  1. aVariation between 16319–17848; bVariation between 13785–15240; cVariation between 4138–4214; d Age 21–37 years, normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.99), non-smoker, and without diabetes, preeclampsia, assisted reproduction, moderate/severe chronic disease, psychiatric disease, substance abuse, thromboembolic episode or known elevated risk, prior hypertension , induction of birth or caesarean section and difference between expected dates of delivery based on assessments from ultrasound and last menstrual period < 14 days; eSimple linear regression analysis on year; fNot applicable; gBody mass index; hOdds ratio from logistic regression analysis on year; iGestational age; jData on a period with increasing mean birth weight and proportion of large infants (1989–2000) are compared with those of a period with declining mean birth weight and proportions of large infants (2001–2010); * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.005.