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Table 4 Level of evidence for the association between PCR as protective and as risk factor and types of alcohol behavior

From: The parent–child relationship and adolescent alcohol use: a systematic review of longitudinal studies

Parent–child relationship Alcohol use Consistency of findingsc (no of findings in high quality studies) Level of evidence
Protectivea Initiation of (monthly) use 6 s (0), 16 ns (1) Inconclusive
Frequency and/or amount of use 7 s (2), 21 ns (11) Weak
(Initiation of) heavy drinking 4 s (0), 5 ns (2) Inconclusive
Otherd 0 s (0), 5 ns (2) Inconclusive
Total   17 (2), 47 (16) Weak
Riskb Initiation of (monthly) use 0 s (0), 2 ns (2) Inconclusive
Frequency and/or amount of use 1 s (0), 6 ns (1) Inconclusive
(Initiation of) heavy drinking 0 s (0), 2 ns (0) Inconclusive
Otherd 0 s (0), 0 s (0) Inconclusive
Total   1 s (0), 10 ns (3) Inconclusive
  1. Abbreviation: s=significant, ns=not significant.
  2. a Positive PCR (e.g., warmth, support).
  3. b Negative PCR (e.g., conflict, rejection).
  4. c Some studies showed more than one association and therefore total number of findings is higher than total number of studies.
  5. d Types of alcohol behavior that could not be classified in any of the other categories (e.g., a composite score of frequency of use, frequency of heavy use, and frequency of drunkenness).