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Table 2 Odds ratios (ORs) of having hearing difficulties in men (n=9 287)

From: Self-reported hearing difficulties, main income sources, and socio-economic status; a cross-sectional population-based study in Sweden

  Model 1: Crude   Model 2: Age-adjusteda   Model 3: Age- and SES-adjusteda   Model 4: Full factoriala,b
Independent variable   OR (95% CI)   OR (95% CI)   OR (95% CI)   OR (95% CI)
Age (years)         
 20-24   1     1   1
 25-34   1.39 (1.00-1.94)     1.60 (1.14-2.24)   1.59 (1.13-2.24)
 35-44   1.95 (1.43-2.67)     2.33 (1.67-3.24)   2.28 (1.63-3.19)
 45-54   2.88 (2.12-3.92)     3.41 (2.46-4.73)   3.28 (2.35-4.56)
 55-64   5.95 (4.41-8.02)     7.08 (5.14-9.75)   6.54 (4.72-9.05)
SES         
 Professional work level   1   1     1
 Intermediate non-manual work level   1.43 (1.13-1.81)   1.43 (1.13-1.82)     1.39 (1.09-1.76)
 Assistant non-manual work level   1.30 (0.97-1.73)   1.34 (1.00-1.79)     1.25 (0.93-1.67)
 Self-employed non-professional work level   1.75 (1.35-2.26)   1.59 (1.23-2.07)     1.51 (1.16-1.96)
 Skilled manual work level   2.11 (1.70-2.64)   2.38 (1.90-2.99)     2.17 (1.73-2.74)
 Unskilled/semiskilled manual work level   1.93 (1.54-2.41)   2.19 (1.75-2.75)     1.98 (1.57-2.50)
 Students   0.76 (0.51-1.13)   1.84 (1.21-2.82)     1.66 (1.05-2.61)
Type of living area         
 Urban   1   1   1   1
 Semi-urban   1.31 (1.13-1.52)   1.29 (1.11-1.50)   1.19 (1.02-1.39)   1.18 (1.01-1.38)
 Sparsely populated   1.54 (1.32-1.79)   1.41 (1.20-1.65)   1.23 (1.05-1.44)   1.22 (1.03-1.43)
Country of birth         
 Sweden   1   1   1   1
 Elsewhere   0.97 (0.80-1.17)   1.01 (0.83-1.23)   0.95 (0.78-1.16)   0.96 (0.79-1.18)
Main income source         
 Work   1   1   1   1
 Unemployment benefits   1.33 (1.03-1.71)   1.34 (1.03-1.73)   1.23 (0.94-1.60)   1.22 (0.94-1.59)
 Sickness benefits/disability pension 2.39 (2.00-2.85)   1.55 (1.29-1.87)   1.36 (1.13-1.65)   1.36 (1.12-1.65)
 Other   0.74 (0.57-0.98)   1.08 (0.81-1.43)   1.07 (0.78-1.45)   1.09 (0.80-1.48)
  1. aAge included as a categorical variable. bIncluded independent variables are age, socio-economic status (SES), type of living area, country of birth, and main income source.