
Portuguese 1^{st} generation % (N)

Portuguese 2^{nd} generation % (N)

Luxembourgers % (N)

P value†


n

169

22

652
 
Age (years) (n 843) *

40.54 ±17

30.6 ± 7

47.71 ± 21

<0.0001^{a, b, c}

Gender
   
0.092

Men (n 410)

55 (93)

59.1 (13)

46.6 (304)
 
Women (n 433)

45 (76)

40.9 (9)

53.4 (348)
 
Education level (%)
   
<0.0001^{a, b}

Primary (n 245)

67.7 (113)

13.6 (3)

20 (129)
 
Secondary (n 418)

28.7 (48)

54.5 (12)

55.6 (358)
 
Tertiary (n 170)

3.6 (6)

31.8 (7)

24.4 (157)
 
Economic status (%)
   
<0.0001^{a, b}

below poverty threshold (n 144)

44.4 (68)

16.7 (3)

13.2 (73)
 
above poverty threshold (n 578)

55.6 (85)

83.3 (15)

86.8 (478)
 
Work status
   
<0.0001^{a, b, c}

Employed (n 524)

74.6 (126)

81.8 (18)

58.4 (380)
 
Nonemployed (n 76)

7.1 (12)

18.2 (4)

9.2 (60)
 
Housewife (n 107)

8.3 (14)

0 (0)

14.3 (93)
 
Retired (n 135)

10.1 (17)

0 (0)

18.1 (118)
 
Total dietary calories (Kcal) (n 796)*

2121.63 ± 1006

2307.06 ±1353

2274.18 ±1153

0.032^{b}

Fat (% Kcal) (n 791)

35.43 ± 6.88

37.54 ± 4.93

39.13 ± 7.05

<0.0001^{b}

Carbohydrates (% Kcal) (n 791)

43.84 ± 7.45

44.22 ± 6.21

41.95 ± 7.44

0.009^{b}

Fibers (g/day) (n 796) *

22.3 ±12

20 ± 18

23.5 ± 13

0.207

 Data are expressed as means ± SD, otherwise median (Interquartile interval) is indicated as*.
 P values are from X
^{2} tests for categorical variables, whereas ANOVA and KruskalWallis were used for normally and nonnormally distributed continuous variables, respectively.
 † Pvalue indicates the comparison between the 3 groups.
 a indicates that the Pvalue is significant when comparing Portuguese 1^{st} generation to Portuguese 2^{nd} generation.
 b indicates that the Pvalue is significant when comparing Portuguese 1^{st} generation to Luxembourgers.
 C indicates that the Pvalue is significant when comparing Portuguese 2^{nd} generation to Luxembourgers.