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Table 4 Baseline medical and lifestyle factors

From: Living with diabetes: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics for an Australian prospective cohort study

Medical or lifestyle factor All
Persons
Males Females p-value
Medical     
Type of diabetes     
   Type 1 4.8% 4.5% 5.2% 0.256
   Type 2 95.2% 95.5% 94.8%  
Length of diagnosis     
   2 years or less 25.5% 25.4% 25.6% 0.298
   3 to 8 years ago 57.5% 56.7% 58.3%  
   More than 8 years ago 17.0% 17.8% 16.1%  
Diet only treated diabetes 4.1% 3.8%% 4.4% 0.372
Current oral hypoglycaemic agents 69.7% 71.8% 67.7% 0.005
Insulin requiring 21.6% 22.7% 20.2% 0.055
HbA1c Levels     
   7.0% or lower 48.7% 48.2% 49.2%  
   7.1%-8.0% 21.7% 22.4% 20.8% 0.070
   Over 8.0% 14.3% 15.1% 13.3%  
   Don't know 15.4% 14.3% 16.7%  
Lipid-lowering agents 52.1% 52.8% 51.0% 0.224
Antihypertensive therapy 57.3% 57.9% 56.6% 0.412
Current depression 38.5% 35.7% 41.8% < 0.001
Diabetes Complications     
Eye disease 23.3% 23.7% 22.8% 0.500
Kidney disease 6.2% 6.8% 5.5% 0.090
Neuropathy 8.8% 9.4% 8.2% 0.192
Erectile dysfunction - 41.4% - -
Foot ulcers 2.1% 2.6% 1.5% 0.017
Heart diseasea 15.4% 19.4% 10.6% < 0.001
Stroke or transient ischaemic attack 5.1% 6.0% 3.9% 0.003
Behavioural lifestyle     
Inadequate fruit consumption 39.5% 43.4% 34.8% < 0.001
Inadequate vegetable consumption 87.2% 90.1% 83.6% < 0.001
Insufficient physical activityb 50.7% 45.2% 57.3% < 0.001
Current smokers 10.5% 10.7% 10.2% 0.619
Risky alcohol consumers 6.6% 8.5% 4.6% < 0.001
BMI (mean = 31.1 ± 6.9 kg/m2)     
   Underweight 0.5% 0.2% 0.9% < 0.001
   Normal 16.4% 15.7% 17.3%  
   Overweight 33.3% 39.2% 25.9%  
   Obese or morbidly obese 49.7% 44.9% 55.8%  
  1. a includes heart disease, angina, heart attack, irregular heart rhythm, missed heart beats or blocked artery in the heart
  2. b insufficient for health benefit is defined as less than 150 min of at least moderate-intensity physical activity over at least five sessions in the previous week (18-75 years only)
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