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Table 3 Multilevel regression analysis for female students' time spent in PA (n=10781)

From: A multilevel examination of gender differences in the association between features of the school environment and physical activity among a sample of grades 9 to 12 students in Ontario, Canada

Characteristics   Student Variables Student and School Social Environment Variables Student, School Social Environment, and School Built Environment Variables Student, School Social Environment, and School & Neighbourhood Built Environment Variables Student, School Social Environment, School & Neighbourhood Built Environment Variables, and School Demographics
   β (SE) β (SE) β (SE) β (SE) β (SE)
Individual-level       
Grade 9 REF REF REF REF REF
  10 -2.11 (2.18) -2.13 (2.18) -2.13 (2.18) -2.15 (2.18) -2.11 (2.18)
  11 -7.81 (2.28)c -7.81 (2.28)c -7.81 (2.28)c -7.79 (2.28)c -7.77 (2.28)c
  12 -13.00 (2.35)c -13.00 (2.35)c -12.94 (2.35)c -12.88 (2.35)c -12.77 (2.34)c
Weight status Healthy weight REF REF REF REF REF
  Underweight 10.55 (6.76) 10.54 (6.76) 10.57 (6.76) 10.63 (6.76) 10.86 (6.76)
  Overweight -0.10 (2.31) -0.10 (2.31) -0.10 (2.31) -0.09 (2.31) -0.15 (2.31)
  Obese 3.14 (3.68) 3.17 (3.68) 3.23 (3.68) 3.17 (3.68) 3.06 (3.68)
Mode of transport to school Non-active REF REF REF REF REF
  Active 18.00 (2.23)c 18.02 (2.23)c 18.10 (2.23)c 18.09 (2.23)c 18.28 (2.23)c
  Mixed 3.72 (1.90)a 3.68 (1.90)a 3.75 (1.90)a 3.85 (1.90)a 4.00 (1.90)a
Enrolled in PE No REF REF REF REF REF
  Yes 23.87 (1.86)c 23.90 (1.86)c 23.90 (1.86)c 23.94 (1.86)c 24.10 (1.86)c
Participating in school intramurals No REF REF REF REF REF
  Yes 18.36 (2.19)c 18.31 (2.19)c 18.34 (2.19)c 18.31 (2.19)c 18.32 (2.19)c
Participating in school varsity teams No REF REF REF REF REF
  Yes 9.26 (2.03)c 9.28 (2.03)c 9.32 (2.03)c 9.33 (2.03)c 9.36 (2.03)c
Engaging in flexibility activities < 3 days/week REF REF REF REF REF
  ≥ 3 days/week 26.90 (1.90)c 26.94 (1.90)c 26.95 (1.90)c 26.93 (1.90)c 26.96 (1.90)c
Engaging in strength activities < 3 days/week REF REF REF REF REF
  ≥ 3 days/week 22.96 (1.96)c 22.93 (1.96)c 22.91 (1.96)c 22.95 (1.96)c 22.91 (1.96)c
Environment-level      
Offer daily PE No   REF REF REF REF
  Yes   5.26 (3.91) 5.37 (3.79) 6.31 (3.70) 5.68 (3.65)
Offer intramurals No   REF REF REF REF
  Yes   -5.65 (4.01) -5.74 (3.88) -4.26 (3.81) -6.86 (3.86)
Other room for PA No    REF REF REF
  Yes    9.43 (4.23)a 9.46 (4.10)a 12.51 (3.96)b
Land-use mix diversity      -24.88 (9.93)b -26.14 (10.19)b
Street connectivity      *removed to create more parsimonious model removed to create more parsimonious model
-2LLd   125247 125233 125223 125210 125177
  1. Note: a p < 0.05; b p < 0.01, c p < 0.001, d-2LL: -2 Log Likelihood (smaller is better fit); Controlling for potential school-level confounders: area-level SES, school location (rural, suburban, urban), and season of data collection (winter, fall, spring)
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