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Table 1 Prevalence and cut-off values in whole blood and oral fluids (n = 5401)

From: Alcohol, psychoactive substances and non-fatal road traffic accidents - a case-control study

  Case group (Injured drivers (n = 96) Control group (Moving traffic n = 5305)
Substance Cut-off in whole blood Prevalence% (n) Cut-off in oral fluid Prevalence% (n)
Any substance   21.9 (21)   3.2 (169)
Alcohol 0.02 g/kg 11.5 (11) 0.02 g/kg 0.3 (17)
Stimulant drugs ng/mL 9.4 (9) ng/mL 0.5 (25)
 Methamphetamine 20 5.2 (5) 410 0.2 (13)
 Amphetamine 20 4.2 (4) 360 0.1 (7)
 Benzoylecgonine 50 4.2 (4) 95 0.2 (10)
 Cocaine 10 2.1 (2) 170 0.1 (4)
 MDMA 20 0 270 0.0 (1)
 MDA 20 0 220 0
Benzodiazepines ng/mL 7.3 (7) ng/mL 0.8 (43)
Diazepam 57 3.1 (3) 2.0 0.5 (25)
Clonazepam 10 3.1 (3) 1.7 0.1 (6)
Alprazolam 10 3.1 (3) 3.5 0.0 (1)
Flunitrazepam 1.6 2.1 (2) 0.3 0.1 (3)
Oxazepam 50 0 13 0.1 (6)
Nitrazepam 7.0 0 2.0 0.1 (5)
Cannabis (THC) 1.0 ng/mL 3.1 (3) 27 ng/mL 0.7 (39)
Z- Hypnotics ng/mL 2.1 (2) ng/mL 0.9 (49)
Zopiclone 10 2.1 (2) 25 0.9 (49)
Zolpidem 37 0 10 0
Opiates ng/mL 1.0 (1) ng/mL 0.3 (18)
Methadone 10 1.0 (1) 22 0.1 (3)
Morphine 10 1.0 (1) 95 0.0 (1)
Codeine 10 0 94 0.2 (13)
Heroin (6-MAM) 10 0 16 0.0 (1)
Combinations with alcohol
Alcohol and other psychoactive substance(−s) 4.2 (4)   0 (2)
Positive samples with no alcohol
1 non- alcohol substance   3.1 (3)   2.5 (132)
2 non- alcohol substances   4.2 (4)   0.3 (16)
3 or more non- alcohol substances   3.1 (3)   0.1 (4)