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Table 3 Sample sizes, rates, and hazard ratios for mortality from all-causes and diseases of the circulatory system among participants aged > = 20 years, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002-2006

From: Combined television viewing and computer use and mortality from all-causes and diseases of the circulatory system among adults in the United States

  Screen time (hours per day)
  < 1 1 2 3 4 > = 5 P for trend
All-causes        
Unweighted no. deaths/no. at risk 56/910 66/1178 117/2007 106/1360 67/819 130/1076 --
Unweighted person-years 5115 6777 11,504 7713 4611 5782 --
Age-adjusted rate/1,000 PY (95% CI) 8.6 (5.2, 12.1) 8.7 (6.7, 10.8) 8.0 (6.4, 9.6) 10.5 (7.6, 13.4) 8.0 (5.4, 10.7) 13.6 (10.2, 16.9) --
Model 1 (hazard ratio, 95% CI) 1.00 1.03 (0.67, 1.58) 1.04 (0.74, 1.47) 1.41 (0.79, 2.51) 1.11 (0.69, 1.78) 1.84 (1.19, 2.86) 0.001
Model 2 (hazard ratio, 95% CI) 1.00 1.04 (0.69, 1.57) 1.03 (0.73, 1.46) 1.40 (0.80, 2.44) 1.03 (0.65, 1.63) 1.74 (1.14, 2.64) 0.001
Model 3 (hazard ratio, 95% CI) 1.00 1.07 (0.70, 1.63) 1.05 (0.74, 1.48) 1.35 (0.77, 2.37) 0.97 (0.61, 1.55) 1.55 (1.00, 2.40) 0.024
Model 4 (hazard ratio, 95% CI) 1.00 1.18 (0.76, 1.85) 1.16 (0.81, 1.67) 1.45 (0.83, 2.55) 1.02 (0.64, 1.63) 1.41 (0.90, 2.19) 0.173
Model 5 (hazard ratio, 95% CI) 1.00 1.16 (0.72, 1.85) 1.14 (0.80, 1.61) 1.40 (0.79, 2.47) 1.00 (0.62, 1.62) 1.30 (0.82, 2.05) 0.336
Model 6 (hazard ratio, 95% CI) 1.00 1.10 (0.69, 1.73) 1.09 (0.78, 1.53) 1.38 (0.78, 2.42) 1.02 (0.64, 1.61) 1.33 (0.85, 2.09) 0.181
Model 5: Exclude deaths in year 1 1.00 1.11 (0.69, 1.79) 1.16 (0.81, 1.66) 1.40 (0.77, 2.55) 0.95 (0.58, 1.56) 1.34 (0.81, 2.21) 0.307
Diseases of the circulatory system        
Unweighted no. deaths/no. at risk 23/910 23/1178 34/2007 40/1360 24/819 46/1076 --
Unweighted person-years 5115 6777 11,504 7713 4611 5782 --
Age-adjusted rate/1,000 PY (95% CI) 3.2 (2.0, 4.4) 3.5 (1.6, 5.4) 1.9 (1.1, 2.7) 3.5 (2.1, 4.9) 2.2 (1.2, 3.3) 4.1 (2.3, 6.0) --
Model 1 (hazard ratio, 95% CI) 1.00 1.09 (0.54, 2.19) 0.63 (0.35, 1.14) 1.14 (0.59, 2.21) 0.77 (0.38, 1.58) 1.37 (0.77, 2.44) 0.167
Model 2 (hazard ratio, 95% CI) 1.00 1.13 (0.57, 2.25) 0.66 (0.36, 1.20) 1.19 (0.60, 2.34) 0.77 (0.36, 1.61) 1.33 (0.72, 2.45) 0.263
Model 3 (hazard ratio, 95% CI) 1.00 1.18 (0.56, 2.45) 0.70 (0.37, 1.32) 1.24 (0.60, 2.56) 0.76 (0.36, 1.62) 1.29 (0.64, 2.57) 0.428
Model 4 (hazard ratio, 95% CI) 1.00 1.42 (0.64, 3.17) 0.82 (0.42, 1.59) 1.42 (0.61, 3.30) 0.84 (0.38, 1.83) 1.20 (0.58, 2.49) 0.858
Model 5 (hazard ratio, 95% CI) 1.00 1.35 (0.59, 3.07) 0.83 (0.42, 1.64) 1.50 (0.65, 3.46) 0.88 (0.38, 2.05) 1.14 (0.51, 2.54) 0.909
Model 6 (hazard ratio, 95% CI) 1.00 1.14 (0.56, 2.32) 0.77 (0.43, 1.38) 1.39 (0.69, 2.80) 0.88 (0.39, 1.99) 1.13 (0.57, 2.24) 0.653
Model 5: Exclude deaths in year 1 1.00 1.18 (0.59, 2.38) 0.82 (0.38, 1.73) 1.44 (0.58, 3.58) 0.61 (0.24, 1.50) 1.12 (0.47, 2.65) 0.990
  1. CI = confidence interval; PY = person-years
  2. Model 1 is adjusted for age
  3. Model 2 is adjusted for age, gender, race or ethnicity, educational attainment
  4. Model 3 is adjusted for variables in model 2 plus smoking status, leisure-time physical activity, Healthy Eating Index score, and alcohol consumption
  5. Model 4 is adjusted for variables in model 3 plus health status and health insurance coverage
  6. Model 5 is adjusted for variables in model 4 plus histories of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer
  7. Model 6 is adjusted for variables in model 5 plus body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and HbA1c
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