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Table 3 Multivariate multi-level regression analyses of the association between neighborhood walkability, neighborhood SES and physical activity

From: Active living neighborhoods: is neighborhood walkability a key element for Belgian adolescents?

  Objectively measured Self-reported
  MVPA CPM Active transport to and from school Walking during leisure time Cycling during leisure time Sport during leisure time
MODEL 1       
   Educational attainment mother       
less than high school (ref.)       
completed high school 0.124(0.076) 0.036(0.034) -0.120(0.125) -0.206(0.102) 0.063(0.109) 0.234(0.133)
completed college 0.085(0.079) 0.012(0.035) -0.027(0.130) -0.169(0.107) 0.174(0.113) 0.292(0.138)
completed university 0.059(0.086) 0.001(0.038) -0.060(0.143) -0.198(0.117) 0.096(0.124) 0.370(0.152)
   Educational attainment father       
less than high school (ref.)       
completed high school -0.156(0.084) -0.053(0.037) -0.048(0.129) -0.030(0.106) -0.180(0.114) -0.106(0.141)
completed college -0.194(0.090) -0.053(0.040) 0.178(0.142) -0.186(0.116) -0.118(0.124) -0.108(0.154)
completed university -0.184(0.094) -0.075(0.042) 0.015(0.148) -0.163(0.122) -0.160(0.130) -0.145(0.160)
   Parental employment       
both parents unemployed (ref.)       
one of the parents employed 0.078(0.100) 0.044(0.044) 0.313(0.154) -0.122(0.131) 0.169(0.134) -0.162(0.166)
Both parents employed 0.206(0.098) 0.083(0.044) 0.458(0.152) -0.151(0.129) 0.206(0.132) 0.048(0.163)
   WALK       
low-walk (ref.)       
high-walk 0.091(0.035)* 0.053(0.017)** 0.151(0.81) 0.131(0.099) -0.014(0.067) 0.096(0.073)
MODEL 2       
   Educational attainment mother       
less than high school (ref.)       
completed high school 0.090(0.077) 0.024(0.034) -0.123(0.125) -0.211(0.102) 0.074(0.109) 0.201(0.133)
completed college 0.064(0.080) 0.007(0.036) -0.009(0.131) -0.160(0.107) 0.187(0.113) 0.263(0.139)
completed university 0.044(0.087) -0.000(0.039) -0.036(0.143) -0.185(0.118) 0.107(0.124) 0.350(0.153)
   Educational attainment father       
less than high school (ref.)       
completed high school -0.155(0.085) -0.051(0.038) -0.035(0.129) -0.025(0.106) -0.176(0.114) -0.105(0.141)
completed college -0.192(0.091) -0.050(0.041) 0.205(0.142) -0.175(0.117) -0.111(0.124) -0.105(0.153)
completed university -0.173(0.094) -0.067(0.042) 0.049(0.148) -0.146(0.122) -0.154(0.129) -0.134(0.159)
   Parental employment       
both parents unemployed (ref.)       
one of the parents employed 0.057(0.101) 0.037(0.045) 0.317(0.154) -0.117(0.130) 0.179(0.134) -0.178(0.166)
Both parents employed 0.179(0.099) 0.073(0.044) 0.464(0.152) -0.146(0.129) 0.220(0.132) 0.022(0.163)
   SES       
low-SES (ref.)       
high-SES 0.059(0.037) 0.013(0.018) -0.154(0.081) -0.189(0.093)* -0.083(0.065) 0.102(0.073)
MODEL 2       
   Educational attainment mother       
less than high school (ref.)       
completed high school 0.121(0.075) 0.035(0.034) -0.101(0.125) -0.193(0.102) 0.079(0.109) 0.217(0.134)
completed college 0.081(0.078) 0.011(0.035) -0.001(0.130) -0.150(0.107) 0.194(0.113) 0.267(0.139)
completed university 0.050(0.085) -0.001(0.035) -0.037(0.143) -0.180(0.117) 0.113(0.124) 0.347(0.152)
   Educational attainment father       
less than high school (ref.)       
completed high school -0.185(0.083) -0.061(0.037) -0.047(0.129) -0.034(0.106) -0.184(0.114) -0.111(0.141)
completed college -0.238(0.090) -0.065(0.040) 0.185(0.143) -0.192(0.117) -0.125(0.125) -0.118(0.155)
completed university -0.237(0.093) -0.089(0.042) 0.019(0.149) -0.172(0.122) -0.171(0.131) -0.153(0.162)
   Parental employment       
both parents unemployed (ref.)       
one of the parents employed 0.062(0.099) 0.040(0.044) 0.319(0.153) -0.121(0.130) 0.171(0.134) -0.171(0.166)
Both parents employed 0.187(0.097) 0.077(0.044) 0.474(0.151) -0.145(0.129) 0.217(0.132) 0.032(0.163)
   WALK       
low-walk (ref.)       
high-walk 0.230(0.053) 0.098(0.026) 0.193(0.113) 0.245(0.129) 0.075(0.092) 0.097(0.107)
   SES       
low-SES (ref.)       
high-SES 0.187(0.052) 0.057(0.025) -0.103(0.108) -0.052(0.132) 0.003(0.090) 0.102(0.103)
   WALK × SES -0.228(0.068)*** -0.073(0.034)* -0.089(0.149) -0.262(0.182) -0.170(0.123) 0.005(0.140)
  1. Model 1,2 and 3 were corrected for educational attainment mother and father and parental employment
  2. *p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001
  3. 1 WALK: neighborhood walkability (low/high neighborhood walkability)
  4. 2 SES: neighborhood socio-economic status (low/high neighborhood SES)
  5. 3 MVPA: moderate to vigorous physical activity
  6. 4 CPM: counts/minute
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