Skip to main content

Table 2 Prospective relationships between changes in work factors and reduced work ability

From: Changes in work situation and work ability in young female and male workers. A prospective cohort study

  All workers N = 1,311 Males N = 593 (45%) Females N = 718 (55%)
    Univariate analysis1 Multivariate analysis2    Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis3    Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis3
  Exposed Cases PR 95% CI PR 95% CI Exposed Cases PR 95% CI PR 95% CI Exposed Cases PR 95% CI PR 95% CI
Changes in physical work factors                   
Increased daily computer use in general 239 82 1.0 0.86-1.28    102 32 1.0 0.75-1.42    137 50 1.1 0.83-1.36   
Decreased rests during computer use in general 378 124 1.0 0.84-1.18    158 50 1.1 0.80-1.38    220 74 1.0 0.76-1.19   
Increased time with hands above shoulder level 246 77 0.9 0.77-1.15    108 32 1.0 0.70-1.33    138 45 0.9 0.71-1.20   
Increased time with flexed or extended neck 345 112 1.0 0.82-1-17    154 50 1.1 0.83-1.42    191 62 0.9 0.72-1.15   
Increased time with flexed back 297 94 1.0 0.79-1.16    142 43 1.0 0.74-1.32    155 51 0.9 0.72-1.20   
Increased lifting 5–10 kg 249 77 0.9 0.76-1.15    127 32 0.8 0.57-1.09    122 45 1.1 0.83-1.39   
Increased lifting 11–15 kg 189 64 1.1 0.85-1.32    112 37 1.1 0.82-1.48    77 27 1.0 0.73-1.39   
Increased lifting 16–25 kg 136 46 1.1 0.82-1.36    84 25 1.0 0.68-1.38    52 21 1.2 0.83-1.66   
Increased lifting > 25 kg 115 42 1.2 0.89-1.48    70 23 1.1 0.76-1.56    45 19 1.2 0.86-1.76   
Increased forceful grip 221 82 1.2 a 0.97-1.43    119 42 1.2 0.91-1.59    102 40 1.2 0.88-1.50   
Increased use of vibrating tools 58 21 1.1 0.79-1.60    33 11 1.1 0.67-1.81    25 10 1.2 0.71-1.89   
Changes in psychosocial work factors
Increased job demands 385 137 1.1 0.94-1.31    150 47 1.0 0.79-1.36    235 90 1.2 0.94-1.42   
Decreased job control 388 187 1.8 a 1.57-2.11 1.7 1.49-2.12 168 78 1.9 a 1.52-2.42 1.7 1.36-2.23 220 109 1.8 a 1.44-2.12 1.6 1.34-1.99
Decreased social support at work 420 173 1.4 a 1.21-1.65 1.2 1.00-1.38 179 75 1.6 a 1.29-2.08 1.4 1.06-1.74 241 98 1.3 a 1.04-1.56   
Decreased reward relative to effort 415 159 1.3 a 1.08-1.48    189 69 1.3 a 1.03-1.68    226 90 1.2 a 0.99-1.50   
Increased negative influence of job demands on private life 411 180 1.6 a 1.34-1.82 1.5 1.25-1.69 172 71 1.6 a 1.24-2.01 1.5 1.20-1.91 239 109 1.6 a 1.27-1.89 1.4 1.15-1.71
Increased work outside the workplace 317 117 1.2 a 0.98-1.38    138 43 1.0 0.77-1.37    179 74 1.3 a 1.02-1.57   
Increased overtime work (>12 h/day) 319 109 1.1 0.89-1.27    167 54 1.1 0.83-1.41    152 55 1.0 0.83-1.34   
Increased reachable by mobile phone out of work time 340 122 1.1 0.96-1.35    172 61 1.2 a 0.97-1.60    168 61 1.1 0.84-1.33   
Increased noise annoyance at the workplace 427 154 1.1 a 0.98-1.35    190 60 1.1 0.81-1.36    237 94 1.2 a 0.99-1.50   
  1. * The figures in boldface were statistically significant (the lower limit of the 95% CI being > 1.00).
  2. 1 Adjusted for sex.
  3. 2 Backward stepwise analyses, adjusted for sex.
  4. 3 Backward stepwise analyses.
  5. a Work factor with a p-value ≤ 0.2 in the univariate analysis and accordingly included in the starting multivariate model.
  6. The results are presented for the study sample in whole and for female and male workers separated*.
  7. (N = number of workers, cases = exposed individuals reported reduced work ability, PR = prevalence ratios, 95% CI = 95% confidence interval).