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Table 1 Demographic and health characteristics for each sample

From: A simple measure with complex determinants: investigation of the correlates of self-rated health in older men and women from three continents

Characteristic Australia USA Japan Korea
N 7,355 10,358 3,541 3,971
Sex (% male) 16.1 41.9 44.2 41.4
Mean age in years (SD) 77.2 (6.50) 74.5 (7.30) 74.4 (6.60) 73.0 (6.31)
Partner status (% partnered) 52.2 58.8 64.4 62.8
Educational level (%)     
 Grade 9 or lower 27.3 16.6 60.6 82.1
 Grades 10-12 37.8 46.3 29.1 11.7
 Post-secondary 34.9 37.0 10.3 6.2
Smoking (% non-smoker) 95.0 90.2 83.0 84.8
Drinking Alcohol (% abstainer) 27.7 70.3 66.1 74.3
Medical conditions (%)     
None 19.3 7.7 32.5 36.3
 One 32.8 24.9 45.1 39.3
 More than one 47.9 67.4 22.4 24.4
ADL Difficulty (% with no difficulty) 86.4 86.1 96.9 91.3
Mental Health Status (% poor) 12.4 14.9 13.3 23.1
Self-rated health (%)a     
 Poor 3.0 8.5 2.5 40.6
 Fair 22.1 22.7 20.8 30.9
 Good 40.4 32.4 41.2 23.5
 Very good 27.3 27.6 19.1 4.0
 Excellent 7.1 8.8 16.4 1.0
Mean self-rated health (SD)b 2.87 (0.94) 2.94 (1.09) 2.74 (1.04) 4.06 (1.11)
  1. a In the Japanese survey response options were totally healthy/relatively healthy/of average health/relatively not very healthy/not at all healthy.
  2. b Low scores indicate good health; excellent = 1 to poor = 5.
  3. Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding. All characteristics are significantly different between countries, p < .001 determined by Chi squared or F-test.