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Table 1 Outcome criteria and assessment schedule

From: A home-visiting intervention targeting determinants of infant mental health: the study protocol for the CAPEDP randomized controlled trial in France

Instrument Concept measured Validation Outcome assessor Structure of instrument; scoring Time of measurement
    Place of evaluation   Prenatal 3 mths after birth 6 mths after birth 12 mths after birth 18 mths after birth 24 months after birth
Edinburgh Post- partum Depression Scale (EPDS) Pre and pospartum depression Cox et al., 1987 [40] Mother during home visits 10 items, 4 point-Likert scales (0–3) X X X X   
   French validation: Guedeney & Fermanian, 1995 [41]   Range 0–30       
     Higher scores indicate higher levels of depressive symptoms.       
Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory Quality of the home environment (quality and quantity of stimulation and support available to the child in the home environment) Bradley & Caldwell, 1979 [42] Assessment team during home visits Designed for use during infancy (birth to age three).   X   X X  
   French validation Gunning et al, 2004 [43]   45 items (yes/no response)       
     Six subscales:       
     Parental Responsitivity (11 items)       
     Acceptance of the child (8 items)       
     Organization of the environment (6 items)       
     Learning Materials (9 items)       
     Parental Involvement (6 items)       
     Variety in Experience (5 items)       
     Highest scores for each subscale indicate greater environment.       
Child Behavior Checklist 1½-5 (CBCL 1½-5) Child behavioural disorders Achenbach 2009 [44] Assessment team during home visits 100 items, Likert scales (0–2)       X
     Range 0–200       
   French validation: Ivanova et al, 2010 [45]         
     A total score and 7 syndrome scales:       
     Emotionally Reactive (0–18, clinical range (CR) >8)       
     Anxious/Depressed (0–16, CR>8)       
     Somatic Complaints (0–22, CR>6)       
     Withdrawn (0–16, CR >5)       
     Sleep Problems (0–14, CR>8)       
     Attention Problems (0–10, CR>6)       
     Aggressive Behaviour (0–38, CR>24)       
Attachment Q –Sort (AQS) Child’s attachment Waters & Deane, 1985 [46] Assessment team during home visits Two raters assess each situation, during a home visit of two hours.      X  
   French translation made and validated by a panel of infant mental health experts         
     90 items       
     Correlation with typical secure pattern:       
     Insecure attachment if < 0.35       
     Secure attachment if ≥0.35       
Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ) Mother’s attachment Bifulco et al., 2003 [47] Mother during home visit 22 items, 5-point Likert scale (1–5). X      X
     Range 0–110       
     1 global scale: Vulnerability (0–110, vulnerability if ≥ 57)       
     2 sub-scales:       
     Insecurity (range 0–60, insecure if > 30)       
     Proximity seeking (range 0–50, proximity seeking if ≥ 27)       
Services Questionnaire Use of social and / or medical services Specifically designed for this research Assessment team during home visits Description of the use of 27 social and / or medical services X X X X   X
Social Support Interview (SS-A; SS-B) Perception of social support received and level of satisfaction from the social network Designed for this research based on Vaux, 1988 [48] Assessment team during home visits 6 items X X   X   X
     Description of social support structure (emotional, material, financial, socialization, valorization)       
Parental Cognitions and Conduct Toward the Infant Scale (Pacotis) Parenting: mother perception of her attitude and behaviour towards her child, of her competence or incompetence and of her emotional investment of the child. Boivin et al., 2005 [49] Mother during home visit 17 items, numeral rating scales (0–10)   X   X   
     3 sub-scales (mean score of items)       
     Parental self-efficacy; Perception of parental impact; Hostile-reactive parenting behaviour       
     Higher sub-scale scores indicate lower parental self-efficacy, perception of less parental impact on the child's behaviour, and higher parental use of hostile-reaction behaviour.       
Brunet-Lézine developmental test (BL-Revised) Child development (0 to 5 years) Brunet & Lezine, 1965 [50] Assessment team during home visits Developmental age (developmental quotient)    X X   
     4 dimensions:       
     Language       
     Motor gross       
     Motor fine       
     Social relationships       
     30 item test scored partly       
     on observation, partly on questions to parents       
   Original scale in French         
Alarm Baby Distress scale (ADBB) Sustained withdrawal behaviour Guedeney & Fermanian, 2001 [51] in France Assessment team during home visits 8 items, 5-point Likert scale (0–4), Range 0–32      X  
     Withdrawal behaviour if ≥ 5       
Knowledge of Infant Development Inventory (KIDI) Mother’s knowledge of infant development McPhee, 1981 [52] Mother during home visit 48 items (−1, 0, 1) X X     X
     Range −48 to 48       
     Highest scores indicate better knowledge.       
Parental Stress Inventory (PSI) Parental stress Abidin & Wilfong, 1989 [53] Mother during home visit 24 items, Likert scales (1–5)   X X X   X
     Two subscales (mean score of items):       
     Parental stress       
     Dysfunctional interaction       
     Higher scores indicate greater parental stress.       
Symptom Check-list (SCL-90) Mother’s psychological disorders Derogatis, 1994 [54] Mother during home visits 90 items, 5 point-Likert scales (0–4) X X     X
     10 subscales:       
     Somatization (0–48)       
     Obsessive-Compulsive (0–40)       
     Interpersonal Sensitivity (0–36)       
     Depression (0–52)       
     Anxiety (0–40)       
     Hostility (0–24)       
     Phobic Anxiety (0–32)       
     Paranoid Ideation (0–24)       
     Psychoticism (0–40)       
     Other symptoms (0–28)       
     Higher scores indicate greater clinical impairment.       
Working Alliance Inventory (WAI)* Working alliance between the mother and the CAPEDP intervention psychologist Horvath & Greenberg, 1989 [55] Mother during home visits 12 items, Likert scale (1–7)   X X X X X
     Range 12–84       
   French validation Guedeney et al, 2005 [56]         
     Higher scores indicate better working alliance       
Strange Situation Procedure (SSP)# Infants’ Attachment Ainsworth & al, 1978 [57] Assessment team viewing video of infant in attachment laboratory Categorical     X   
         (12 to 15 mths)   
     Attachment:       
     Secure       
     Insecure-Avoidant       
     Insecure-Ambivalent/Resistant       
     Disorganised/Disoriented       
Atypical Maternal Behaviour Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) # Maternal Disruptive Behaviour Lyons-Ruth, Bronfman, & Parsons, 1999 [58] Assessment team viewing video of mother in attachment laboratory Categorical:     X   
     Maternal Affective Communication not Disrupted if < 5     (12 to 15 mths)   
     Maternal Affective Communication Disrupted if ≥ 5       
     2 Sub-styles:       
     Withdrawal /Disoriented       
     Hostile/Role Confusion       
Insightfulness Assessment (IA) # Maternal Auto-reflexive function Oppenheim & Koren-Karie 2002 [59] Assessment team viewing video and interview of mother in Attachment laboratory 10 scales, giving way to a 4 category classification:     X   
         (12 to 15 mths)   
     Positive Insight       
     One-sided       
     Disengaged       
     Mixed       
  1. * in the intervention group only.
  2. # in the CAPEDP-A subsample only.