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Table 8 Associations between lifestyle practices after diagnosis and characteristics of the study population (n=483)

From: Knowledge, attitudes and practices among people with chronic hepatitis B attending a hepatology clinic in Malaysia: A cross sectional study

Characteristic Stopped or reduced alcohol (n= 131) Stopped or reduced smoking (n=78) Not sharing eating and drinking utensils (n=243) Did not increased exercise (n=67)
  n (%) p value n (%) p value n (%) p value n (%) p value
Age (years)         
<30 14 (77.8) ns 8 (61.5) ns 33 (42.9) ≤0.001** 9 (22.0) ns
30–39 25 (80.6)   18 (78.3)   31 (36.9)   13 (23.6)  
40–49 35 (89.7)   20 (74.1)   43 (45.3)   23 (32.4)  
50–59 34 (94.4)   18 (90.0)   74 (55.6)   14 (19.2)  
≥60 23 (88.5)   14 (82.4)   62 (68.1)   8 (15.4)  
Gender         
Male 95 (87.2) ns 60 (78.9) ns 141(51.5) ns 38 (22.2) ns
Female 36 (87.8)   18 (75.0)   102(49.5)   29 (24.0)  
Ethnicity         
Malay 11 (61.1) 0.002* 16 (69.6) ns 46 (42.6) 0.038* 17 (27.9) ns
Chinese 117(90.7)   60 (81.1)   186(52.8)   44 (20.4)  
Indian 3 (100)   2 (66.7)   9 (75.0)   3 (33.3)  
Others 0 (0)   0 (0)   2 (25.0)   3 (50.0)  
Education level (Age)         
Primary (7–12 years) and under 15 (88.2) ns 12 (92.3) ns 29 (46.8) ns 8 (22.2) ns
Secondary (13–17 years) 66 (84.6)   43 (76.8)   129(55.1)   37 (24.3)  
Tertiary (18 and above) 50 (90.9)   23 (74.2)   85 (46.2)   22 (21.2)  
Occupation         
Professional 32 (84.2) ns 14 (60.9) ns 43 (51.8) ns 9 (16.7) ns
Skilled 14 (87.5)   10 (90.9)   17 (41.5)   7 (29.2)  
Unskilled 52 (94.5)   32 (84.2)   82 (46.6)   28 (25.9)  
Unemployed 23 (79.3)   18 (81.8)   70 (59.3)   18 (26.1)  
Housewife 10 (83.3)   4 (66.7)   31 (50.0)   5 (13.5)  
Duration of diagnosis (years) (n=478) ^      (n=241)a   (n=65)a  
<10 56 (84.8) ns 35 (76.1) ns 102(49.5) ns 28 (21.9) ns
10 to 19 42 (91.3)   23 (79.3)   81 (50.6)   22 (23.9)  
≥20 33 (89.2)   20 (83.3)   58 (53.2)   15 (21.7)  
Ever received therapy(n=194) # (n=61)b   (n=47)c   (n=99)d   (n=35)e  
Yes (n=110) 38 (88.4) ns 26 (89.7) ns 59 (54.1) ns 19 (26.0) ns
No (n=84) 23 (85.2)   21 (77.8)   40 (47.6)   16 (28.6)  
Presence of Cirrhosis         
Yes 23 (92.0) ns 16 (84.2) ns 47 (63.5) 0.022* 11 (24.4) ns
No 108 (86.4)   62 (76.5)   196(48.3)   56 (22.7)  
  1. ns, not significant; *significant different at p≤0.05; **significant different at p≤0.001; ^Missing data n=5; #Applicable to those who were offered HBV therapy. Only those with significant liver disease and viral replication are offered treatment [22]; amissing data n=2; bmissing data n=70; cmissing data n=31; dmissing data n=144; emissing data n=32.