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Table 4 Bivariate analyses of the associations between characteristics of study population and attitudes and perceptions towards Hepatitis B (n=483)

From: Knowledge, attitudes and practices among people with chronic hepatitis B attending a hepatology clinic in Malaysia: A cross sectional study

Characteristics Negative attitudes and perceptions towards Hepatitis B
  Worried ever since diagnosis (n=260) Worried of spreading infection to family and friends (n= 332)
  n (%) p value n (%) p value
Age (years)     
<30 46 (59.0) 0.001** 67 (85.9) 0.001**
30–39 59 (70.2)   64 (76.2)  
40–49 54 (56.3)   65 (67.7)  
50–59 64 (47.8)   87 (64.9)  
≥60 37 (40.7)   49 (53.8)  
Gender     
Male 148 (53.8) ns 189 (68.7) ns
Female 112 (53.8)   143 (68.8)  
Ethnicity     
Malay 73 (67.0) 0.01* 87 (79.8) 0.026*
Chinese 174 (49.3)   229 (64.9)  
Indian 8 (66.7)   9 (75.0)  
Others 5 (55.6)   7 (77.8)  
Education level (Age)     
Primary (7–12 years)
and under
33 (53.2) ns 37 (59.7) ns
Secondary (13–17 years) 132 (56.2)   166 (70.6)  
Tertiary (18 years and above) 95 (51.1)   129 (69.4)  
Occupation     
Professional 44 (53.0) ns 57 (68.7) ns
Skilled 25 (61.0)   29 (70.7)  
Unskilled 104 (58.8)   132 (74.6)  
Unemployed 52 (43.7)   73 (61.3)  
Housewife 35 (55.6)   41 (65.1)  
Duration of diagnosis     
(years) (n=478) ^ (n=258)a   (n=330)c  
<10 125 (60.1) 0.016* 157 (75.5) 0.012*
10 to 19 86 (53.4)   108 (67.1)  
≥20 47 (43.1)   65 (59.6)  
Ever received therapy (n=194) # (n=104)b   (n=121)d  
Yes (n=110) 67 (60.9) 0.03* 73 (66.4) ns
No (n=84) 37 (44.0)   48 (57.1)  
Presence of Cirrhosis    
Yes 32 (43.2) ns 45 (60.8) ns
No 228 (55.7)   287 (70.2)  
  1. ns, not significant; *significant different at p≤0.05; **significant different at p≤0.001; ^Missing data n=5; #Applicable to those who were offered HBV therapy. Only those with significant liver disease and viral replication are offered treatment [22]; amissing data n=2; bmissing data n=156; cmissing data n=2; dmissing data n=211.