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Table 3 Factors associated with delays exceeding their median value (bivariate analysis, adjusted for the hospital)

From: Pulmonary tuberculosis diagnostic delays in Chad: a multicenter, hospital-based survey in Ndjamena and Moundou

  Extended patient delay OR [95% CI] P Extended health system delay OR [95% CI] P Extended total delay OR [95% CI] P
Sociodemographic characteristics
Gender      
Male 1   1   1  
Female 0.60 [0.36-1.00] 0.46 1.31 [0.79-2.19] 0.30 0.70 [0.42-1.17] 0.17
Age groups (years)       
15 to 24 1   1   1  
25 to 34 0.99 [0.52-1.89]   0.51 [0.26- 1]   0.58 [0.30-1.13]  
35 to 44 1.18 [0.58-2.42]   0.91 [0.44-1.88]   0.73 [0.35-1.52]  
45 to 55 1.63 [0.70-3.82]   0.63 [0.27-1.48]   0.81 [0.34-1.91]  
55 and over 2.06 [0.67-6.32] 0.52 1.44 [0.45- 4.54] 0.13 1.13 [0.37-3.47] 0.49
Wealth score       
1st quartile (lowest) 2.00 [1.01-4.00]   2.13 [1.05- 4.33]   2.57 [1.25-5.26]  
2nd 1.73 [0.85-3.56]   1.49 [0.72-3.1]   1.79 [0.85-3.75]  
3rd 1.21 [0.61-2.39]   1.09 [0.54-2.18]   1.30 [0.64-2.62]  
4th (highest) 1 0.17 1 0.12 1 0.06
Numbers of years of education       
0 1.07 [0.39- 2.96]   4.29 [1.42-13.02]   2.71 [0.96-7.67]  
1 to 4 1.12 [0.39-3.23]   6.07 [1.91-19.26]   2.36 [0.81-6.91]  
5 to 6 0.61 [0.24-1.58]   4.42 [1.55-12.62]   2.27 [0.86-5.96]  
7 to 10 0.39 [0.15- 0.99]   2.87 [1.03-7.98]   1.38 [0.54-3.54]  
≥ 10 1 0.02 1 0.03 1 0.19
Health insurance       
No 1   1   1  
Yes 0.41 [0.20- 0.85] 0.01 0.54 [ 0.26- 1.12] 0.10 0.5 [0.24-1.05] 0.06
How the patients planned to pay the additional expenses       
Savings 1 0.02 1 0.21 1 0.51
Loan 3.34 [0.59-18.86]   1.18 [ 0.24-5.82]   2.43 [ 0.43- 13.78]  
Help from relatives 1.29 [0.66-2.48]   1.58 [0.81-3.08]   1.48 [0.76- 2.90]  
Working 2.50 [0.90-6.75]   0.61 [0.23-1.66]   1.14 [0.43- 3.05]  
Selling belongings 5.85 [1.72-19.89]   1.15 [0.42-3.17]   2.22 [ 0.79- 6.24]  
Residence       
Urban 1   1   1  
Rural 1.53 [0.81-2.88] 0.18 2.51 1.26-4.97] 0.007 2.68 [1.33-5.41] 0.006
Clinical aspects
Hemoptysis       
No 1 0.21 1 0.14 1 0.05
Yes 0.69 [0.38- 1.23]   0.65 [0.36-1.16]   0.57 [0.31-1.02]  
Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs
Did not know how TB is transmitted 2.35 [1.26- 4.40] 0.01 1.38 [0.75-2.54] 0.30 1.58 [0.86-2.91] 0.14
Did not know what causes TB 1.34 [0.66- 2.71] 0.41 2.06 [1.02-4.13] 0.03 1.30 [0.80-3.21] 0.16
Did not know that TB treatment was free 0.83 [0.48-1.41] 0.49 0.47 [0.27-0.81] 0.006 0.64 [0.37-1.10] 0.10
Is there a link between AIDS and TB?       
No 1 0.12 1 0.39 OR=1 0.41
Yes 0.57 [0.32-1.01]   0.74 [0.42-1.31]   0.79 [0.44-1.41]  
Did not know 0.60 [0.32-1.13]   0.65 [0.35-1.23]   0.65 [0.35-1.23]  
What treatment can cure TB?       
Self- medication 4.46 [0.47-42.67] 0.02 0.85 [0.09-8.30] 0.0003 1.89 [0.18-19.96] 0.0001
Medical care 1   1   1  
No answer 2.37 [1.38- 4.05]   2.38 [ 1.37- 4.13]   3.05 [1.73- 5.40]  
Nothing 4.22 [0.43-41.99]   5.80 [0.56-60.43]   5.24 [0.42-65.45]  
Traditional medicine 2.20 [1.05-4.60]   5.70 [2.39-13.65]   5.02 [2.16-11.67]  
Access to and use of health services
Referral by a health facility       
Yes 1 0.04 1 0.18 1 0.63
No 1.66 [1.02- 2.70]   1.41 [0.86- 2.32]   1.13 [0.69-1.85]  
Distance from home to closest service       
≤ 1 km 1 0.01 1 0.09 1 0.15
1 to 5 km 1.25 [0.75- 2.07]   0.99[0.59-1.66]   1.24 [0.74- 2.08]  
≥ 5 km 3.99 [1.52-10.48]   2.56[1.05-6.24]   2.38 [0.99- 5.74]  
First care received       
Self-medication 1.58 [0.27-9.44] 0.10 0.77[0.14-4.15] 0.03 0.80 [0.15- 4.34] 0.09
Health center 1   1   1  
Hospital 0.92 [0.46-1.84]   0.48[0.24-0.98]   0.70 [0.35- 1.41]  
Pharmacist 0.19 [0.04-0.99]   0.50[0.13-1.98]   0.20 [0.04- 1.01]  
Private doctor 0.37 [0.13-1.03]   0.62[0.23-1.68]   0.72 [ 0.26-1.99]  
No health care 2.83 [0.31-26.29]   0.63[0.12-3.48]   0.62 [0.11- 3.40]  
Informal drug market 0.57 [0.28-1.17]   1.38[0.66-2.87]   0.95 [0.46-1.96]  
Traditional medicine 0.49 [0.21-1.14]   2.05[0.83-5.06]   2.46 [0.97- 6.24]  
  1. OR: odds-ratio; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval.