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Table 2 Factors associated with delays exceeding their median value (univariate analysis )

From: Pulmonary tuberculosis diagnostic delays in Chad: a multicenter, hospital-based survey in Ndjamena and Moundou

  Size Median PD [IQ] Percentage of patients ≥ the median PD P Median HSD [IQ] Percentage of patient ≥ the median HSD P Median TD [IQ] Perecentage of patients ≥ the median TD P
Sociodemographic characteristics
Gender           
Male 192 15.0 [9.0 – 30. 0] 58.3 0.03 35.0 [18.5-66.0] 48.4 0.31 61.5 [33.0 – 94.0] 52.6 0.26
Female 94 11.5 [7.0 – 30.0] 44.7   39.5 [21.0-65.0] 55.3   52.0 [34.0 -89.0] 44.7  
Age groups (years)           
15 to 24 60 14.0 [7.0 – 25.5] 48.3 0.42 45.0 [20.0 – 70.0] 58.3 0.08 65.5 [33.0 – 95.0] 56.7 0.31
25 to 34 103 15.0 [7.0 - 30.0] 50.5   31.0 [19.0 – 54.0] 40.8   49.0 [31.0 – 88.0] 42.7  
35 to 44 67 15.0 [7.0 – 27.0] 55.2   44.0 [16.0 – 64.0] 55.2   57.0 [33.0 – 88.0] 49.3  
45 to 55 37 15.0 [10.0 – 30.0] 62.2   35.0 [21.0 – 78.0] 48.7   63.0 [40.0 – 108.0] 54  
55 and over 19 21.0 [10.0 – 60.0] 68.42   46.0 [20.0 – 65.0] 68.4   67.0 [45.0 – 109.0] 63.2  
Wealth score           
1st quartile (lowest) 78 15.0 [10.0 – 30.0] 61.5 0.10 49.0 [23.0 – 68.0] 60.3 0.26 71.0 [42.0 -115.0] 60.3 0.19
2nd 68 15.5 [7.0 – 30.0] 60.3   33.0 [18.0 – 59.0] 48.5   55.5 [37.5 – 88.0] 48.5  
3rd 79 14.0 [7.0 – 24.0] 48.1   33.0 [18.0 – 60.0] 45.6   51.0 [30.0 – 90.0] 45.6  
4th (highest) 61 14.0 [7.0 – 30.0] 44.3   35.0 [20.0 – 66.0] 47.5   48.0 [28.0 -88.0] 44.3  
Numbers of years of education           
0 58 17.0 [10.0 – 31.0] 66.7 0.005 42.0 [21.0 – 68.0] 51.9 0.07 64.5 [35.0 – 115.0] 55.6 0.42
1 to 4 43 15.0 [10.0 – 30.0] 67.4   42.0 [18.0 – 66.0] 60.5   61.0 [36.0 – 110.0] 53.5  
5 to 6 77 15.0 [7.0 - 30.0] 52   45.0 [23.0 – 69.0] 55.8   64.0 [40.0 – 90.0] 54.6  
7 to 10 87 13.0 [7.0 – 21.0] 39.1   35.0 [19.0 – 65.0] 48.3   50.0 [30.0 – 85.0] 44.8  
≥ 10 24 21.0 [12.0 – 30.0] 62.5   22.5 [14.5 – 39.0] 25   46.5 [31.5 -92.5] 37.5  
Health insurance           
Yes 39 12.0 [7.0 – 30. 0] 35.9 0.02 26.0 [12.0 – 63.0 ] 35.9 0.06 37.0 [25.0 – 86.0] 33.3 0.04
No 247 15.0 [7.0 -30.0] 56.7   40.0 [20.0 – 66.0] 53   61.0 [36.0 – 95.0] 52.6  
How the patients planned to pay the additional expenses           
Savings 51 14.0 [7.0 – 22.0] 71.4 0.01 38.0 [17.0 – 55.0] 57.1 0.38 56.0 [33.0 – 80.0] 71.4 0.8
Loan 7 30.0 [7.0 – 45.0] 45.1   43.0 [21.0 – 59.0] 51   73.0 [48.0 – 105.0] 49  
Help from relatives 167 15.0 [7.0 – 30.0] 50.9   41.0 [19.0 – 67.0] 55.1   58.0 [33.0 – 95.0] 50.3  
Working 28 15.0 [7.0 – 40.0] 60.7   35.0 [21.0 – 67.0] 35.7   54.5 [38.5 – 85.0] 46.4  
Selling belongings 25 30.0 [17.0 -45.0] 84   29.0 [23.0 – 61.0] 44   68.0 [47.0 – 115.0] 56  
Rural residence           
Yes 50 20.5 [10.0 – 45.0] 64 0.12 54.5 [23.0 – 100.0] 66 0.01 93.0 [48.0 – 123.0] 66 0.02
No 236 15.0 [7.0 – 30.0] 51.7   34.5 [19.0 – 60.0] 47.5   53.5 [32.5 – 88.0] 46.6  
Clinical aspects          
Hemoptysis           
Yes 61 19.0 [10.0 – 30.0] 60.7 0.25 54.0 [26.0-72.0] 59 0.15 75.0 [39.0 – 113.0] 60.7 0.08
No 225 15.0 [7.0- 30.0] 52   35.0 [18.0 – 60.0] 48.4   55.0 [32.0 – 88.0] 47.1  
HIV serological status           
Negative 118 14.0 [7.0 -30.0] 46.5 0.13 44.0 [21.0 – 71.0] 56.8 0.06 62.5 [36.0 – 105.0] 53.4 0.04
Positive 62 16.0 [9.0 -30.0] 62.9   41.5 [21.0 - 64.0] 54.8   66.5 [45.0 – 99.0] 59.7  
Unknown 106 15.0 [7.0 – 30.0] 55.7   31.5 [14.0 – 60.0] 41.5   49.5 [30.0 – 83.0] 40.6  
Do people hide their TB?           
Yes 224 14.0 [7.0 -30.0] 49.6 0.02 41.0 [20.0 – 66.0] 52.7 0.25 61.5 [33.0 – 92.0] 52.7 0.10
No 46 20.0 [10.0 – 30.0] 71.7   33.5 [19.0 – 66.0] 47.8   51.0 [37.0 – 108.0] 45.7  
Did not know 16 18.5 [10.0 – 25.5] 62.5   17.5 [10.0 – 47.5] 31.3   46.5 [27.5 – 63.5] 25  
Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs
Knew what causes TB           
Yes 37 14.0 [7.0 – 30.0] 46 0.38 32.0 [17.0 71.0] 40.5 0.22 52.0 [36.0 – 99.0] 46 0.72
No 249 15.0 [7.0 – 30.0] 55   38.0 [20.0 – 64.0] 52.2   58.0 [33.0 – 93.0] 50.6  
Knew how TB is transmitted          
Yes 58 9.5[7.0 – 21.0] 34.5 0.001 35 [20-65] 48.3 0.77 49.0 [30.0 – 78.0] 44.8 0.46
No 228 15.0[8.5 – 30.0] 58.8   36.5 [19-65.5] 51.3   59.5 [34.5 – 94.0] 51.3  
Knew that TB treatment was free           
Yes 111 15.0 [7.0 – 25.0] 55 0.80 23.0 [12.0 – 51.0] 35.1 0.0003 45.0 [28.0 – 75.0] 37.8 0.002
No 175 15.0 [7.0- 30.0] 53.1   46.0 [25.0 – 69.0] 60.6   67.0 [39.0 -101.0] 57.7  
Is there a link between AIDS and TB?           
Yes 102 14.0 [7.0 – 30.0] 47.1 0.18 35.0 [19.0 – 70.0] 49 0.04 52.5 [30.0 – 93.0] 49 0.04
No 98 15.0 [7.0 – 30.0] 60.20   44.5 [24.0 – 66.0] 60.2   69.5 [48.0 – 108.0] 59.2  
Did not know 86 15.0 [10.0 – 21.0] 54.7   28.0 [15.0 – 51.0] 41.9   47.0 [31.0 – 73.0] 40.7  
What treatment can cure TB?           
Self- medication 5 15.0 [15.0 – 20.0] 80 0.02 12.0 [10.0 – 30.0] 20 0.0001 30.0 [25.0 – 32.0] 20 0.0001
Medical care 120 10.0 [7.0 – 21.0] 40.8   25.5 [17.0 – 52.0] 37.5   45.0 [30.5 – 74.5] 35.8  
No answer 114 18.0 [10.0 – 30.0] 63.2   38.0 [19.0 – 70.0] 53.5   63.5 [37.0 – 105.0] 55.3  
Nothing 4 22.5 [11.0 – 30.0] 75   50.5 [27.0 – 63.0] 75   73.0 [38.0 -93.0] 50  
Traditional medicine 43 15.0 [11.0 – 30.0] 60.5   57.0 [43.0 – 74.0] 81.4   75.0 [58.0 – 107.0] 79.1  
Access to and use of health services
Referral by a health facility           
Yes 127 14.0 [7.0 – 30.0] 46.5 0.03 35.0 [19.0 – 64.0] 49.6 0.81 62.0 [35.0 – 91.0] 52 0.63
No 159 15.0 [8.0 – 30.0] 59.8   36.0 [19.0 – 66.0] 51.6   56.0 [30.0 -95.0] 48.4  
Distance from home to the closest service           
≤ 1km 146 14.0 [7.0 - 24.0] 48 0.01 35.0 [19.0 -65.0] 49.3 0.08 52.0 [34.0 -89.0] 46.6 0.14
1 to 5 km 109 15.0 [7.0 - 30.0] 55   35.0 [19.0 -61.0] 47.7   58.0 [30.0 – 90.0] 50.5  
≥ 5 km 30 30.0 [30.0 - 45.0] 80   55.0 [26.0 – 71.0] 70   89.0 [52.0 -115.0] 66.7  
First health care received           
Self-medication 6 18 [14 – 35] 66.7 0.14 38.5 [33 – 43] 50 0.006 56.0 [45.0 – 75.0] 50 0.04
Health center 62 15.0 [7.0 – 30.0] 61.3   39.5 [19.0 – 66.0] 51.6   57.5 [33.0 – 93.0] 50  
Hospital 78 15.0 [10.0 – 30.0] 61.5   20.5 [10.0 – 53.0] 32   40.5 [27.5 – 75.0] 38.5  
Pharmacist 10 9.0 [7.0 – 14.0] 20   34.5 [19.0 -49.0] 40   43.0 [37.0 – 56.0] 20  
Private doctor 23 14.0 [7.0 – 21.0] 39.1   35.0 [20.0 – 85.0] 47.8   61.0 [30.0 – 103.0] 52.2  
No health care 6 30.0 [15.0 – 30.0] 83.3   48.0 [20.0 – 71.0] 50   63.5 [49.0 – 101.0] 50  
Informal drug market 63 14.0 [7.0 – 30.0] 47.6   44.0 [23.0 – 69.0] 63.5   64.0 [37.0 -113.0] 54  
Traditional medicine 38 14.0 [7.0 – 30.0] 47.4   54.0[34.0 – 81.0] 71   68.5 [50.0 – 110.0] 73.7  
Knew a health professional           
Yes 101 14.0 [7.0 – 27.0] 42.6 0.006 43.0 [20.0 – 66.0] 56.4 0.17 63.0 [36.0 – 95.0] 55.5 0.22
No 185 15.0 [9.0 – 30.0] 60   34.0 [19.0 – 65.0] 47.6   56.0 [32.0 – 93.0] 47  
Hospital           
HU 69 14.0 [7.0 – 21.0] 44.9 0.06 35.0 [20.0 -70.0] 49.3 0.0002 56 [32-93] 46.4 0.0001
HGRN 153 15.0 [7.0 – 30.0] 52.9   45.0 [23.0 -67.0] 60.1   68 [41-101] 60.8  
HM 64 15.0 [10.0- 23.5] 65.5   22.0 [11.0 – 40.0] 29.7   40 [27-63] 28.1  
  1. IQ: Interquartile range.