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Table 3 Noncommunicable disease prevalence (%) by education level, and education-related inequality among adults of 41 low- and middle-income countries, World Health Survey 2002-04

From: Socioeconomic inequality in the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries: Results from the World Health Survey

     Angina Arthritis Asthma Depression Diabetes Co-morbidity
     Estimate 95% CI Estimate 95% CI Estimate 95% CI Estimate 95% CI Estimate 95% CI Estimate 95% CI
Men Middle-income group No formal schooling 12.0 10.4 13.7 7.9 6.4 9.3 9.2 7.7 10.8 7.1 5.8 8.3 2.7 1.9 3.4 7.7 6.4 9.0
   Less than primary school 10.5 9.3 11.8 7.9 6.7 9.0 6.8 5.9 7.8 5.2 4.2 6.1 3.7 3.0 4.4 7.8 6.7 9.0
   Primary school completed 10.9 9.7 12.1 6.0 5.2 6.8 7.4 6.5 8.2 5.2 4.4 6.0 4.3 3.8 4.9 7.4 6.5 8.2
   Secondary/high school completed 8.5 7.8 9.2 6.1 5.5 6.7 5.7 5.1 6.3 3.2 2.7 3.7 4.1 3.6 4.7 5.2 4.7 5.8
   College completed or above 6.6 5.7 7.4 5.5 4.6 6.4 4.2 3.0 5.3 2.6 1.9 3.3 4.0 3.3 4.7 4.3 3.7 4.9
   Slope index of inequality Model 1* 4.8 2.0 7.5 1.4 −1.0 3.8 5.3 2.7 7.8 1.6 −0.1 3.3 −1.1 −2.5 0.3 3.1 0.7 5.6
    Model 2** 1.0 −2.1 4.0 −0.2 −2.9 2.5 2.5 −0.1 5.1 0.5 −1.6 2.6 0.0 −1.5 1.4 0.6 −2.1 3.4
  Low-income group No formal schooling 10.2 9.4 11.1 5.2 4.6 5.8 6.4 5.7 7.1 5.5 4.8 6.1 0.8 0.6 1.0 5.5 4.9 6.1
   Less than primary school 10.1 9.1 11.1 4.2 3.6 4.7 5.7 4.8 6.5 4.9 4.2 5.7 1.4 1.0 1.8 5.1 4.4 5.8
   Primary school completed 8.2 7.3 9.1 3.4 2.8 3.9 6.0 5.0 6.9 4.4 3.6 5.1 1.6 1.2 2.1 3.9 3.2 4.5
   Secondary/high school completed 6.4 5.6 7.3 3.5 2.8 4.2 4.6 3.8 5.3 3.8 3.1 4.6 2.6 2.1 3.2 3.0 2.5 3.6
   College completed or above 4.4 3.2 5.7 3.0 2.1 4.0 3.7 2.8 4.7 4.1 3.0 5.1 2.8 2.0 3.5 2.5 1.7 3.3
   Slope index of inequality Model 1* 7.6 5.2 10.0 2.9 1.1 4.7 4.1 2.3 5.9 1.9 −0.4 4.2 −3.7 −4.9 −2.4 4.8 3.1 6.5
    Model 2** 4.1 1.4 6.9 2.2 0.2 4.2 2.4 0.2 4.6 0.3 −2.4 3.0 −2.0 −3.2 −0.8 2.7 0.7 4.7
Women Middle-income group No formal schooling 17.9 16.4 19.4 10.7 9.6 11.8 10.2 9.0 11.4 12.0 10.5 13.5 7.7 6.7 8.7 15.2 13.9 16.5
   Less than primary school 17.0 15.2 18.9 8.8 7.9 9.7 9.7 8.8 10.6 7.0 5.9 8.0 5.7 5.1 6.4 11.6 10.7 12.6
   Primary school completed 16.2 14.8 17.5 11.8 10.7 12.9 7.7 6.7 8.6 7.6 6.2 8.9 6.3 5.6 7.0 11.9 10.7 13.1
   Secondary/high school completed 13.3 12.5 14.2 8.8 8.1 9.5 6.2 5.7 6.8 5.7 5.0 6.4 5.1 4.5 5.7 8.8 8.1 9.5
   College completed or above 9.5 8.5 10.4 8.8 7.9 9.6 3.9 3.3 4.6 5.1 4.3 6.0 2.9 2.4 3.5 5.6 4.9 6.3
   Slope index of inequality Model 1* 5.6 1.9 9.3 0.0 −2.6 2.6 4.7 1.1 8.4 3.0 0.5 5.5 0.3 −2.0 2.6 3.8 0.5 7.2
    Model 2** 0.9 −2.7 4.6 −0.7 −3.5 2.0 2.9 −0.4 6.2 1.4 −1.3 4.1 1.7 −0.1 3.6 1.9 −1.2 5.1
  Low-income group No formal schooling 14.7 13.9 15.5 6.1 5.7 6.6 7.1 6.5 7.7 8.4 7.8 9.0 1.1 0.9 1.3 7.7 7.1 8.2
   Less than primary school 15.1 13.9 16.3 6.4 5.4 7.5 5.7 5.0 6.4 7.4 6.5 8.3 2.6 2.0 3.3 7.1 6.2 8.0
   Primary school completed 11.6 10.2 13.0 5.4 4.5 6.3 6.2 5.2 7.2 5.9 5.0 6.8 2.2 1.7 2.7 5.4 4.5 6.3
   Secondary/high school completed 10.6 9.4 11.9 5.9 5.0 6.8 5.5 4.7 6.4 6.2 5.1 7.3 3.2 2.5 4.0 6.6 5.6 7.7
   College completed or above 9.0 7.5 10.6 3.9 2.9 4.9 3.1 1.9 4.3 3.4 2.2 4.5 3.5 2.6 4.4 3.9 2.9 4.9
   Slope index of inequality Model 1* 7.8 4.6 11.0 2.6 0.2 5.0 1.9 −0.1 3.8 6.6 4.3 8.9 −4.6 −6.7 −2.5 5.3 2.9 7.8
    Model 2** 3.8 0.2 7.5 1.2 −1.7 4.1 1.3 −0.8 3.4 4.5 1.7 7.3 −1.8 −3.4 −0.1 3.9 1.0 6.8
  1. * Model 1 is adjusted for country of residence and age.
  2. ** Model 2 is adjusted for country of residence, age, marital status, urban/rural area and wealth.