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Table 1 Predictors of genital ulcer symptoms among men in the general population

From: Risk factors, healthcare-seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with genital ulcers in Zambia

  Univariate Multivariate
     p-value Model I Model II Model III
Age in years n % OR (CI) <0.001 OR (CI) OR (CI) OR (CI)
15–19 673 2.5 0.9 (0.43, 1.72)   1.1 (0.44–2.58) 1.6 (0.59, 4.33) 1.5 (0.61–3.56)
20–24 923 4.2 1.5 (0.82–2.57)   1.7 (0.85–3.23) 1.5 (0.74–3.20) 1.9 (0.99–3.67)
25–29 969 6.6 2.3 (1.40–3.93)   2.5 (1.43–4.32) 2.5 (1.39–4.51) 2.7 (1.53–4.69)
30–39 1662 3.8 1.3 (0.80–2.19)   1.3 (0.80–2.21) 1.3 (0.75–2.19) 1.4 (0.83–2.99)
40–49 862 2.9 Ref   Ref Ref Ref
Residence     0.330    
Urban 2149 4.6 1.3 (0.86–1.82)     
Rural 2940 3.7 Ref     
Marital     0.038    
Never married 1636 3.7 Ref   Ref Ref Ref
Married / Cohabiting 3777 3.9 1.1 (0.72–1.59)   1.2 (0.65–2.14) 0.8 (0.27–2.31) 0.8 (0.49–1.49)
Widowed /Separated / Divorced 276 8.5 2.4 (1.47–4.07)   2.6 (1.35–5.02) 2.2 (1.04–4.84) 2.2 (1.13–4.20)
Wealth index     0.176    
Poorest / Poorer 1705 3.6 Ref   Ref Ref  
Middle 1048 3.4 0.9 (0.60–1.50)   0.9 (0.58–1.45) 0.9 (0.56–1.45)  
Richer / Richest 2338 4.7 1.3 (0.901.94)   1.3 (0.85–1.89) 1.2 (0.78–1.79)  
Education     0.304    
No education 246 4.6 Ref     
Primary 2331 4.4 0.9 (0.49–1.82)     
Secondary/ Tertiary 2512 3.8 0.8 (0.41–1.60)     
Recent sexual activity        
Active last 4 weeks 3135 4.7 1.6 (1.07–2.29) 0.010   1.5 (0.944–2.36) 1.7 (1.07–2.61)
Not active last 4 weeks 1948 3.1 Ref    Ref Ref
Used condom last sex     0.043    
No 3375 4.1 Ref    Ref  
Yes 1066 5.5 1.4 (0.92–2.01)    0.9 (0.60–1.36)  
Relationship with last partner     0.015    
Spouse/Live-in partner 3107 4.0 Ref    Ref  
Casual acquaintance /Girl friend 1301 5.5 1.4 (1.01–1.95)    0.9 (0.38–2.26)  
Age at first sex (in years)     0.065    
<16 1923 4.9 1.3 (0.95–1.77)    1.0 (0.63–1.55)  
16–19 2094 3.8 1.1 (0.81–1.52)    0.8 (0.48–1.27)  
>19 1072 3.3 Ref    Ref  
Life-time sex partners     <0.001    
1 771 1.0 Ref    Ref Ref
2–4 2223 3.2 3.2 (1.34–7.73)    3.5 (1.22–9.87) 3.0 (1.27–7.08)
5–10 1452 6.2 6.3 (2.68–14.94)    6.4 (2.32–17.94) 5.7 (2.39–13.33)
11 and above 636 6.8 7.0 (2.85–17.52)    7.2 (2.40–21.40) 6.1 (2.42–15.28)
Circumcised (men only)     0.966    
No 4212 4.0 0.83 (0.56–1.22)     
Yes 876 4.8 Ref     
  1. Model 1 Underlying variables with p  < 0.2 in the univariate analyses.
  2. Model 2 Underlying + proximate determinants with p  < 0.2 in the univariate analyses.
  3. Model 3 variables with p  < 0.1 in model II.