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Table 2 Poisson regression analyses for female total lung cancer, AC and SCC from 2001 to 2005 based on quartiles of air pollutants between 1994 and 1998a

From: Cell type specificity of female lung cancer associated with sulfur dioxide from air pollutants in Taiwan: An ecological study

Variables All casesb AC SCC
  RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI)
SO2 concentration (ppb)
≤ 3.74 1.00 1.00 1.00
3.74-5.52 1.09 (0.97-1.22) 1.20 (1.04-1.37) 1.39 (0.96-2.01)
5.52-7.75 1.10 (0.97-1.24) 1.22 (1.04-1.43) 1.58 (1.06-2.37)
> 7.75 1.30 (1.13-1.50) 1.27 (1.06-1.52) 1.80 (1.15-2.84)
Test for trend P = 0.0003* P = 0.0272* P = 0.0145*
CO concentration (ppm)
≤ 0.55 1.00 1.00 1.00
0.55-0.72 0.97 (0.84-1.12) 0.99 (0.83-1.19) 0.82 (0.53-1.27)
0.72-0.88 1.14 (0.98-1.32) 1.09 (0.90-1.31) 1.07 (0.69-1.67)
> 0.88 1.20 (0.99-1.45) 1.18 (0.93-1.50) 0.99 (0.56-1.75)
Test for trend P = 0.0055* P = 0.0759 P = 0.5833
NO2 concentration (ppb)
≤ 17.09 1.00 1.00 1.00
17.09-22.18 0.93 (0.82-1.05) 1.06 (0.90-1.25) 0.95 (0.64-1.41)
22.18-27.63 0.87 (0.75-1.01) 1.08 (0.89-1.30) 1.08 (0.69-1.70)
> 27.63 0.80 (0.66-1.08) 1.15 (0.89-1.47) 1.04 (0.57-1.91)
Test for trend P = 0.0304* P = 0.3175 P = 0.7259
NO concentration (ppb)
≤ 5.29 1.00 1.00 1.00
5.29-8.18 1.11 (0.97-1.26) 1.05 (0.89-1.24) 1.05 (0.71-1.57)
8.18-12.37 1.02 (0.88-1.17) 1.13 (0.94-1.36) 1.04 (0.67-1.62)
> 12.37 1.27 (1.05-1.53) 1.31 (1.03-1.66) 1.12 (0.63-1.99)
Test for trend P = 0.0615 P = 0.0174* P = 0.7464
O3 concentration (ppb)
≤ 19.18 1.00 1.00 1.00
19.18-22.01 0.82 (0.75-0.91) 0.84 (0.75-0.95) 0.79 (0.59-1.06)
22.01-25.33 0.86 (0.77-0.97) 0.85 (0.73-0.98) 0.82 (0.57-1.16)
> 25.33 0.89 (0.78-1.02) 0.88 (0.74-1.04) 0.75 (0.50-1.14)
Test for trend P = 0.1169 P = 0.1188 P = 0.2049
PM10 concentration (μg/m3)
≤ 50.04 1.00 1.00 1.00
50.04-61.23 1.08 (0.98-1.19) 1.03 (0.92-1.15) 1.12 (0.82-1.52)
61.23-76.30 1.17 (1.06-1.30) 1.07 (0.95-1.20) 1.34 (0.98-1.83)
> 76.30 0.99 (0.88-1.12) 0.85 (0.73-1.01) 1.22 (0.84-1.78)
Test for trend P = 0.3893 P = 0.1700 P = 0.1413
  1. a AC, adenocarcinoma; CI, confidence interval; CO, carbon monoxide; NO, nitric oxide; NO2, nitrogen dioxide; O3, ozone; PM10, particulate matter < 10 μm; RR, relative risk; SCC, squamous cell carcinoma; SO2, sulfur dioxide.
  2. bAll cases included AC, SCC, large cell carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma.
  3. Adjusted for age and other air pollutants. *P < 0.05.