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Table 4 Lifetime costs, health gain and cost-effectiveness of cardiovascular disease prevention in Australia

From: Improving the cost-effectiveness of cardiovascular disease prevention in Australia: a modelling study

  Lifetime health gain (QALYs) Lifetime intervention costs to Government ($billion) Lifetime intervention costs to Patients ($billion) Lifetime treatment costs averted ($billion) Cost-effectiveness* ($/QALY)
Current practice 270,000 (220,000 to 310,000) $12 ($12 to $12) $2.6 ($2.6 to $2.6) -$3.4 (−$4.4 to -$2.4) $41,000 ($34,000 to $52,000)
Existing single risk factor-based guidelines 180,000 (120,000 to 240,000) $7.4 ($5.1 to $9.9) $3.5 ($2.4 to $4.7) -$2.3 (−$3.4 to -$1.3) $49,000 ($40,000 to $60,000)
Absolute risk (≥15%) 67,000 (44,000 to 91,000) $1.3 ($0.9 to $1.8) $0.8 ($0.5 to $1.0) -$0.7 (−$1.0 to -$0.4) $21,000 ($17,000 to $26,000)
Absolute risk (≥10%) 150,000 (97,000 to 200,000) $3.5 ($2.4 to $4.6) $1.9 ($1.3 to $2.6) -$1.5 (−$2.3 to -$0.9) $27,000 ($22,000 to $32,000)
Absolute risk (≥5%)
– including statins <10% 330,000 (220,000 to 450,000) $10.0 ($7.0 to $14.0) $5.5 ($3.8 to $7.4) -$3.7 (−$5.7 to -$2.2) $37,000 ($31,000 to $44,000)
– excluding statins <10% 290,000 (190,000 to 390,000) $6.5 ($4.5 to $8.6) $4.3 ($2.9 to $5.7) -$3.2 (−$4.8 to -$1.9) $27,000 ($21,000 to $33,000)
Absolute risk (≥5%) assuming the cheaper price of statins in New Zealand
– including statins <10% 330,000 (220,000 to 450,000) $5.1 ($3.5 to $6.8) $3.7 ($2.6 to $5.0) -$3.7 (−$5.7 to -$2.2) $16,000 ($12,000 to $20,000)
– excluding statins <10% 290,000 (190,000 to 390,000) $4.7 ($3.3 to $6.3) $3.6 ($2.5 to $4.8) -$3.2 (−$4.8 to -$1.9) $18,000 ($14,000 to $24,000)
  1. NB. All values are rounded to two significant figures. Health gains and costs are presented as mean and 95% uncertainty interval, and cost-effectiveness ratio as median and 95% uncertainty interval. Costs are presented in 2008 Australian dollars. QALY – quality-adjusted life year*. A value of $50,000/QALY is often considered a threshold for cost-effectiveness in Australia.