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Table 1 Major components of Greenhalgh et al’s conceptual model for considering the determinants of diffusion, dissemination and implementation of innovations in organizations

From: Adopting and implementing nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities: Public and private sector roles. A multiple case study

Framework components Description Examples
Attributes of the innovation Perceived attributes of the innovation explain much of the variance in adoption rates Relative advantage, complexity, observability
Organizational antecedents for innovation General features of the organization that make it more or less innovative Receptive context for change, absorptive capacity
Organizational readiness for innovation Readiness and/or willingness of the organization to adopt a particular innovation Power balances, tension for change, innovation-system fit
Adopters and the adoption process Influential aspects of adopters and of adoption as a process Meaning of the innovation to potential adopters
Processes of assimilation Organizations may move back and forth between initiation, development and implementation of the innovation Complex, non-linear processes
Implementation process Specific steps involved in putting a decision into practice Effective management, feedback and monitoring
Communication and influence Means of spreading the innovation Champions, diffusion, dissemination
Outer context External influences on the organization Socio-political climate, environmental stability
Linkage between developers and users Connections that facilitate movement of the innovation from developers to users Effective knowledge transfer from developers to users
  1. Source: Based on a systematic review of empirical research studies [27].