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Table 2 Regression analysesin which education level and income level predicted four smoking related outcomes

From: Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking prevalence, consumption, initiation, and cessation between 2001 and 2008 in the Netherlands. Findings from a national population survey

   Men Women  
  2001 2008 2001 2008
Smoking prevalence     
Education level*     
Low 1.75 (1.55 to 1.97) 1.84 (1.62 to 2.09) 1.79 (1.56 to 2.06) 2.26 (1.96 to 2.62)
Moderate 1.32 (1.17 to 1.49) 1.44 (1.27 to 1.64) 1.25 (1.09 to 1.44) 1.62 (1.41 to 1.87)
High 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Income level     
Low 1.33 (1.17 to 1.51) 1.49 (1.31 to 1.70) 1.52 (1.33 to 1.74 1.83 (1.58 to 2.10)
Moderate 1.13 (0.99 to 1.28) 1.11 (0.98 to 1.25) 1.12 (0.97 to 1.30) 1.39 (1.20 to 1.60)
High 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Smoking consumption     
Education level     
Low 0.11 (0.06 to 0.17) 0.17 (0.11 to 0.23) 0.11 (0.05 to 0.17) 0.20 (0.13 to 0.26)
Moderate 0.07 (0.02 to 0.13) 0.07 (0.01 to 0.13) 0.01 (−0.05 to 0.07) 0.12 (0.06 to 0.18)
High 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Income level     
Low 0.06 (0.00 to 0.11) 0.00 (−0.06 to 0.06) 0.12 (0.06 to 0.17) 0.15 (0.08 to 0.20)
Moderate 0.05 (−0.01 to 0.11) −0.01 (−0.06 to 0.04) 0.06 (0.00 to 0.12) 0.08 (0.02 to 0.14)
High 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Initiation ratio     
Education level     
Low 1.87 (1.66 to 2.10) 2.24 (1.99 (2.52) 1.41 (1.25 to 1.59) 1.73 (1.53 to 1.95)
Moderate 1.43 (1.27 to 1.61) 1.47 (1.30 to 1.65) 1.19 (1.05 to 1.34) 1.45 (1.29 to 1.63)
High 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Income level     
Low 1.32 (1.16 to 1.51) 1.51 (1.32 to 1.73) 1.25 (1.11 to 1.41) 1.32 (1.17 to 1.49)
Moderate 1.14 (1.00 to 1.30) 1.27 (1.13 to 1.43) 1.01 (0.89 to 1.14) 1.21 (1.08 to 1.37)
High 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Quit ratio     
Education level     
Low 0.81 (0.70 to 0.94) 0.84 (0.71 to 0.98) 0.69 (0.58 to 0.82) 0.56 (0.47 to 0.67)
Moderate 0.95 (0.81 to 1.11) 0.83 (0.70 to 0.98) 0.92 (0.77 to 1.10) 0.73 (0.61 to 0.87)
High 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Income level     
Low 0.86 (0.74 to 1.01) 0.76 (0.64 to 0.89) 0.72 (0.61 to 0.85) 0.56 (0.47 to 0.66)
Moderate 0.96 (0.82 to 1.13) 1.05 (0.91 to 1.22) 0.88 (0.74 to 1.05) 0.78 (0.66 to 0.92)
High 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  1. † Odds Ratios and 95% confidence intervals are given for smoking prevalence, initiation ratio, and quit ratio, Bètas and 95% confidence intervals for smoking consumption. All regression coefficients were adjusted for age group. Regression coefficients in italics were non-significant.
  2. * Education level and income level were entered as independent variables in separate analyses.