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Table 3 Characteristics of studies

From: The use of complementary and alternative medicine by people with cardiovascular disease: a systematic review

Author (Year) Mode of data collection Sample size Diagnosis CAM Modalities Investigated Prevalence* (%)
Ackman et al. (1999) Standardised, self-administered survey 180 CHF Vitamins/minerals, nutritional supplements, health food or herbal products; OTC medication 59^
Ai et al. (2004) Combination face-to-face interviews and telephone survey 225 Cardiac surgery Relaxation, spiritual healing, herbal medicine, megavitamins, acupuncture, chiropractic, massage, biofeedback, hypnosis, imagery, homeopathy; includes exercise. 80.9
Albert et al. (2009) Structured telephone or face-to-face interview 374 Heart failure Vitamins, minerals, herbal products, OTC medication 11.5
^^
Amira & Okubadejo (2007) Semi-structured interview (face-to-face) 225 Hypertension NIH Categories: whole medical systems, mind-body therapies; dietary supplements & herbs; energy therapy and manipulation & touch therapy; plus sub-categories. 39.1
Artz et al. (2006) Combination of standardised survey (face-to-face) and medical records 315 CVD Non-vitamin/mineral dietary supplement, vitamin/mineral dietary supplement. 4
Barraco et al. (2005) Semi-structured face-to-face interview 223 CAD Folk remedies, herbal therapy, homeopathy, megavitamin therapy (not daily vitamin), minerals (not calcium or iron), native American medicine, Tibetan medicine, traditional Chinese medicine (includes exercise and prayer as CAM) 63
Blackmer and Jefromova (2002) Standardised telephone survey 136 Stroke or subarachnoid haemorrhage Acupuncture, massage, chiropractic, reflexology, magnetic therapy, hyperbaric oxygen, herbal supplements, vitamins, spiritual healing, reiki, chelation, relaxation 26.5
Buettner et al. (2007) Combination of standardised survey (face-to-face) and medical examination; part of the annual National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1066 CAD or Stroke Vitamins, minerals, other dietary supplements 61
Chagan et al. (2005) Structured face-to-face interview 198 CVD Biologically based therapies (herbal medicine, Vitamins & minerals) 42
Dal Corso et al. (2007) Semi-structured face-to-face interview 153 CHF Herbal remedies, integrators (vitamins, minerals, salts), OTC medications 30^
Decker et al. (2007) Combination of face-to-face interview, and medical records. 596 CAD Biofeedback, acupuncture, relaxation therapy, home remedies, and chelation therapy 19
Gohar et al. (2008) Standardised, self administered survey 153 Hypertension NIH Categories: whole medical systems, mind-body therapies; dietary supplements & herbs; energy therapy and manipulation & touch therapy; (includes prayer) 37.9
Greenfield et al. (2008) Standardised, self administered survey; 422 CVD Open ended question on CAM; vitamins & minerals, exercise, acupuncture, homeopathy, chiropractic, massage 9.2
Krasuski et al. (2006) Standardised, self administered survey 210 CVD Herbal medications, vitamin supplements (unless prescribed), dietary supplements, visits to alternative medicine providers 54
Lee and Kim (2009) Structured face-to-face interviews 1434 Hypertension Dietary supplements 23.7
Leung et al. (2008) Standardised, self administered survey (mail out) 661 CAD Mind-body therapy: meditation, yoga, qigong, tai chi, relaxation techniques, deep breathing exercise, visualisation, guided imagery, quiet sitting, mantra, muscle relaxation, and other (not including prayer) 35.1
Liu et al. (2000) Standardised, self administered survey 263 Cardiac surgery Ayurveda, Acupuncture, Biofeedback, Chelation, Chiropractic, Energy healing, guided imagery, Herbs, Homeopathy, Hypnosis, Massage therapy, Meditation/relaxation, Naturopathy, Nutritional therapy, Prayer/pastoral counselling, qi gong, reflexology, tai chi, vitamins, yoga, other 75
Martinez-Selles et al. (2004) Standardised, self administered survey 65 CHF CAM use was asked in the context of “use of over the counter drugs and alternative medicine” 12
Pharand et al. (2003) Structured face-to-face interviews 306 CVD Vitamins or mineral products, nutritional supplements, health food or herbal products (home remedies, oriental remedies) 22.9^
Quan et al. (2001) Standardised, self administered survey 5854 CAD Chelation therapy 7.9
Shafiq et al. (2003) Structured structured face-to-face interviews 521 Hypertension Ayurvedic medicine, herbal medicine, homeopathy, spiritual healing, diet therapy and acupuncture 63.9
Stys et al. (2004) Physician interview 187 CVD Vitamin, mineral or herbal supplements 57
Wong et al. (2003) Physician interview 107 CVD Herbal medicine 26
Wood et al. (2003) Combination of structured phone interview, medical records as part of a larger study: Improving Cardiovascular Health in Nova Scotia (ICONS) 107 CVD Megavitamins, Herbal therapy, Other nutritional supplements, Chiropractic, Massage therapy, Acupuncture, Homeopathy, Folk remedies, Exercise, Energy healing, Chelation,Biofeedback, Relaxation therapy, Spiritual healing, Hypnosis, Self-help groups (includes exercise) 64
*Yeh et al. (2006) Structured face-to-face interview; 2002 National Health Interview Survey 10572 CVD NIH Categories: whole medical systems, mind-body therapies; dietary supplements & herbs; energy therapy and manipulation & touch therapy; (excluding prayer) 36
Yilmaz et al. (2007) Semi-structured face-to-face interview 310 CVD Herbal medicine 26.5
Zick et al. (2005) Standardised, self administered survey 252 CHF Herbs, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, other 32.5
  1. * Refers to the prevalence reported in the study of the CAM modalities investigated.
  2. ^ No overall prevalence reported to the CAM, the figure presented here is for dictary supplement usage.
  3. ^^ No overall prevalence reported for CAM, the figures presented here refer to multivitamin use and herbal therapy use respectively.