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Table 3 Mixed effect models to model impact of change in smoking status on asthma symptoms and health services use

From: Results from a community-based program evaluating the effect of changing smoking status on asthma symptom control

  Ex-Smokers versus Smokers (reference) New/Intermittent Smokers versus Non-Smokers (reference)
Outcome Measures Odds Ratio 95% CI Odds Ratio 95% CI
Asthma Symptoms
Wheeze
  Crude 0.50[0.24,1.04] 1.66[1.28,2.15]**
  Adjusted1 0.51[0.25,1.02] 1.32[0.98,1.76]
Shortness of Breath
  Crude 0.83[0.51,1.36] 1.24[0.92,1.67]
  Adjusted 0.85[0.52,1.37] 1.07[0.79,1.45]
Chest Tightness
  Crude 0.22[0.06,0.81]* 1.24[0.84,1.84]
  Adjusted 0.21[0.06,0.82]* 1.36[1.10,1.70]*
Cough
  Crude 0.85[0.59,1.23] 1.10[0.74,1.62]
  Adjusted 0.87[0.63,1.21] 1.03[0.69,1.52]
Night-time Symptoms
  Crude 0.25[0.07,0.90]* 1.71[1.20,2.44]*
  Adjusted 0.24[0.07,0.85]* 1.55[1.09,2.20]*
Day-time Symptoms
  Crude 0.89[0.68,1.15] NA
  Adjusted 0.94[0.78,1.14] NA
> 1 Asthma Attack in last 6 months
  Crude 0.52[0.23,1.18] 1.06[0.69,1.62]
  Adjusted 0.56[0.22,1.39] 1.43[1.17,1.75]**
Acute Health Services Use (last 6 months)
Any Urgent Visit
  Crude 0.81[0.21,3.14] 1.43[0.50,4.10]
  Adjusted 0.78[0.21,2.94] 1.31[0.39,4.39]
ER Visits
  Crude 0.81[0.11,5.92] NA
  Adjusted NA NA
Walk-in Clinic Visits
  Crude 1.63[0.39,6.73] 2.64[0.89,7.81]
  Adjusted NA 4.57[1.44,14.49]*
School/Work Absenteeism (last 4 weeks)
Missed Work/School
  Crude NA 1.32[0.35,4.99]
  Adjusted NA 1.30[0.30,5.64]
  1. 1Multivariable mixed effect models adjusted for age, sex, baseline symptoms and health services use.* p<0.05, ** p<0.001.
  2. NA, not available due to small sample size.