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Table 3 Associations between psychological distress and senses of contribution or bonding*

From: Association between psychological distress and a sense of contribution to society in the workplace

Variables Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
  OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p
Sense of contribution to society        
Never 2.28 (1.53-543) < 0.01 2.05 (0.99-4.23) 0.05 2.92 (1.53-5.59) < 0.01 1.99 (0.94-4.19) 0.07
Rarely 1.71 (1.06-2.75) 0.03 1.55 (0.91-2.63) 0.10 1.81 (1.11-2.96) 0.02 1.66 (0.96-2.86) 0.07
Often 1.22 (0.77-1.93) 0.40 1.33 (0.80-2.19) 0.27 1.33 (0.83-2.12) 0.24 1.47 (0.88-2.46) 0.14
Always Ref - Ref - Ref - Ref -
  P for trend < 0.001   P for trend = 0.04   P for trend < 0.001   P for trend = 0.06  
Sense of bonding with workplace        
Never 2.47 (1.32-4.61) 0.01 1.36 (0.67-2.78) 0.40 2.49 (1.29-4.79) 0.01 1.24 (0.59-2.62) 0.57
Rarely 2.13 (1.27-3.60) < 0.01 1.41 (0.79-2.52) 0.24 2.30 (1.33-3.96) < 0.01 1.39 (0.76-2.55) 0.28
Often 1.49 (0.90-2.46) 0.12 1.26 (0.73-2.18) 0.41 1.52 (0.90-2.56) 0.12 1.21 (0.68-2.13) 0.52
Always Ref - Ref - Ref - Ref -
  P for trend < 0.001   P for trend = 0.32   P for trend < 0.001   P for trend = 0.40  
  1. *The associations between psychological distress and senses of contribution to society or bonding with workplace were analysed separately using 4 logistic regression models.
  2. Model 1: Without adjustment.
  3. Model 2: Adjusted for job stress factors (support from supervisors, support from co-workers, support from family, quantitative workload, quality of workload, and job control latitude).
  4. Model 3: Adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics of participants (sex, age group, job position, and department).
  5. Model 4: Adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics of participants and job stress factors.
  6. OR- odds ratio, CI- confidence interval.