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Table 2 Multilevel logistic model for daily breakfast consumption outcomes, MCMCa estimates (Monte Carlo standard error)

From: Family structure and breakfast consumption of 11-15 year old boys and girls in Scotland, 1994-2010: a repeated cross-sectional study

Fixed effects   Model 1b Model 2c Model 3d Model 4e
Cons   0.38 (0.07) 0.46 (0.05) 0.53 (0.05) 0.49 (0.06)
Age   -0.21 (0.01) -0.21 (0.01) -0.10 (0.02) -0.10 (0.02)
Age squared   0.04 (0.01) 0.04 (0.01) 0.04 (0.01) 0.04 (0.01)
Sex (ref: Male) Female -0.53 (0.03) -0.53 (0.03) -0.71 (0.05) -0.71 (0.05)
Family structure (ref: Both parents) Single mother -0.35 (0.04) -0.35 (0.04) -0.35 (0.04) -0.14 (0.07)
  Single father -0.44 (0.09) -0.44 (0.09) -0.44 (0.09) -0.13 (0.18)
  Step family -0.25 (0.04) -0.24 (0.04) -0.24 (0.04) -0.21 (0.09)
  Other -0.20 (0.12) -0.20 (0.12) -0.21 (0.12) 0.04 (0.32)
Year (ref: 1994) 1998 0.22 (0.08)    
  2002 -0.03 (0.08)    
  2006 0.05 (0.08)    
  2010 0.10 (0.08)    
Yearcont f    0.02 (0.01) 0.01 (0.01) 0.02 (0.01)
Age*Yearcont f     -0.01 (0.001) -0.01 (0.001)
Sex*Yearcont f (ref: Male*Yearcont f) Female*Yearcont f    0.02 (0.004) 0.02 (0.005)
Family structure * Yearcont f interaction
(ref: Both parents*Yearcont f)
Single mother*Yearcont f     -0.02 (0.01)
  Single father*Yearcont f     -0.03 (0.02)
  Step family*Yearcont f     -0.004 (0.01)
  Other*Yearcont f     -0.02 (0.02)
Random effects      
Level 1 (child) varianceg   1 1 1 1
Level 2 (school) variance   0.056 (0.011) 0.056 (0.011) 0.041 (0.010) 0.042 (0.010)
Level 3 (region)   0.028 (0.010) 0.026 (0.009) 0.026 (0.009) 0.026 (0.009)
D ¯ h   34815.5 34818.2 34791.4 34776.9
P D i   255.2 254.7 214.2 219.9
DIC j   35070.7 35072.9 35005.6 34996.8
  1. avia Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC); estimates are based on a chain of length of 50,000 following a burn-in of 5,000
  2. bModel 1 adjusts for age, age2, sex, grade, family structure and year as a categorical variable
  3. cModel 2 adjusts for age, age2, sex, grade, family structure, year as a continuous variable, and year marker following 2002 when the question on breakfast consumption changed
  4. dModel 3 adjusts for age, age2, sex, grade, family structure, year as a continuous variable, year marker for years following 2002, and interaction terms between year and age and year and sex
  5. eModel 4 adjusts for age, age2, sex, grade, family structure, year as a continuous variable, year marker for years following 2002, interaction terms between year and age and year and sex, and an interaction term between year and family structure. Interaction between family structure and year marker for years following 2002 is not significant
  6. fYearcont refers to continuous Year variable, ranging between 1 (1994) and 17 (2010)
  7. gVariance at the child level is constrained to 1
  8. h D ¯ is the expectation of the deviance and is a measure of how well the model fits the data
  9. i P D is the effective number of parameters
  10. j DIC is the Deviance Information Criterion; the larger this is, the worse the model fit