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Table 7 Bivariate associations between socio-demographic and reproductive health characteristics and potential barriers to accessing abortion services

From: Woman-centered research on access to safe abortion services and implications for behavioral change communication interventions: a cross-sectional study of women in Bihar and Jharkhand, India

   Perceived
availability
Perceived
affordability
Favorable
attitude
  n mean SD t mean SD t mean SD t
Age           
   < 25 years 301 2.52 0.93 -- 2.02 1.05 -- 2.14 1.04 --
   ≥ 25 years 1110 2.51 0.92 0.48 2.00 1.04 0.38 2.12 1.00 0.39
Schooling           
   Never attended 873 2.51 0.91 -0.30 2.03 1.05 -1.50 2.06 0.97 2.97**
   Up to medium 366 2.48 0.92 0.75 1.94 0.99 1.29 2.19 1.04 -1.39
Secondary &
above
172 2.55 0.95 -0.56 1.96 1.09 0.49 2.31 1.10 -2.57*
Type of family           
   Nuclear 621 2.55 0.88 -- 2.06 1.04 -- 2.13 1.00 --
   Joint/Extended 790 2.48 0.94 1.14 1.95 1.04 1.79 2.13 1.02 0.021
Religion           
   Hindu 865 2.50 0.89 0.60 1.98 1.02 0.59 2.07 0.97 0.15*
   Muslim 152 2.48 1.02 0.41 2.04 1.16 -0.54 2.07 1.11 -0.69
   Other 394 2.55 0.93 -1.04 2.01 1.05 -0.30 2.26 1.05 -3.15**
Caste           
   General 169 2.42 0.83 1.41 2.10 1.11 -1.38 2.23 1.06 -2.12*
   Scheduled Caste 118 2.49 0.87 0.21 2.05 1.02 -0.61 2.00 1.01 1.39
   Scheduled Tribe 447 2.58 0.94 -1.77 1.96 1.06 0.72 2.20 1.04 -1.74
   Other Backward Class 677 2.49 0.93 0.61 1.98 1.02 0.56 2.06 0.97 2.23*
Living Standard           
   Low 1173 2.52 0.91 -0.51 2.02 1.05 -1.89 2.15 1.00 -1.93
   Medium 168 2.49 0.92 0.29 1.84 0.99 2.03* 2.01 1.02 1.55
   High 70 2.47 0.89 0.44 1.97 1.03 0.23 2.00 1.01 1.00
State           
   Jharkhand 700 2.55 0.95 -- 2.02 1.04 -- 2.13 1.04 --
   Bihar 711 2.47 0.88 1.66 1.98 1.04 0.74 2.11 0.97 0.39
Knowledge on legal status           
   No 840 2.47 0.99 -- 1.99 1.07 -- 1.93 0.93 --
   Yes 571 2.58 0.80 -2.09* 2.00 1.00 -0.20 2.43 1.06 -9.26**
Know source of abortion services           
   No 759 2.63 0.94 -- 2.00 1.07 -- 2.06 0.98 --
   Yes 652 2.38 0.87 5.08** 1.99 1.00 0.23 2.20 1.04 -2.53*
Ever pregnant           
   No 93 2.49 0.89 -- 2.20 1.04 -- 2.13 0.99 --
   Yes 1318 2.52 0.92 -0.29 1.98 1.04 1.91 2.12 1.01 0.08
Ever had abortion           
   No 1350 2.51 0.92 -- 2.00 1.05 -- 2.13 1.01 --
   Yes 61 2.55 0.96 -0.38 1.79 0.94 1.56 1.86 0.89 1.00
Ever had miscarriage           
   No 1222 2.51 0.91 -- 1.99 1.05 -- 2.12 1.01 --
   Yes 189 2.53 0.92 -0.30 2.02 1.00 -0.35 2.11 0.97 0.12
Know any modern method of abortion           
   No 1249 2.48 0.92 -- 2.03 1.05 -- 2.05 0.98 --
   Yes 11 2.88 1.00 -1.42 1.73 1.14 0.94 3.00 1.43 -3.01**
Exposure to message on abortion           
   No 1232 2.48 0.93 -- 2.04 1.06 -- 2.03 0.96 --
   Yes 179 2.74 0.75 -3.59** 1.74 0.88 3.52** 2.84 1.05 -9.84**
  1. **: p < 0.01; *: p < 0.05