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Table 1 Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of immigrants with tuberculosis, without and with community health worker intervention.

From: Community health workers improve contact tracing among immigrants with tuberculosis in Barcelona

Variables Before CHWa Intervention 2000-2002 (572 cases) N (%) After the introduction of CHW intervention 2003-2005 (388 cases) N (%) p-value
Sex    
Male 392 (68.5) 259 (66.8)  
Female 180 (31.5) 129 (33.2) 0.6
Age (median: 38; IQRb: 28-56)    
0-14 34 (6.0) 17 (4.4)  
15-24 112 (19.6) 58(14.9)  
25-39 300 (52.5) 241 (62.1)  
40 or over 125 (21.9) 72 (18.5) < 0.001
Geographical area of origin    
Latin America 202 (35.3) 152 (39.2)  
India-Pakistan 136 (23.8) 112 (28.9)  
North Africa 92 (16.1) 42 (10.8)  
Other countries 142 (24.8) 82 (21.1) < 0.001
District of residence    
Ciutat Vella 197 (34.4) 161 (41.5)  
Other 339 (59.3) 213 (54.9)  
Unknown 36 (6.3) 14 (3.6) 0.02
Homeless    
Yes 48 (8.4) 29 (7.5)  
No 524 (91.6) 359 (92.5) 0.7
Smoking    
Yes 183 (32.0) 116 (29.9)  
No 389 (68) 272 (70.1) 0.5
Alcoholic    
Yes 79 (13.8) 56 (14.4)  
No 493 (86.2) 332 (85.6) 0.2
HIV    
Yes 49 (8.6) 36 (9.3)  
No 523 (91.4) 352 (90.7) 0.8
IDU c    
Yes 22(3.8) 20 (5.2)  
No 550 (96.2) 368 (94.8) 0.4
Type of TB d of index case    
Pulmonary smear-positive 201 (35.2) 152 (39.2)  
Pulmonary Smear (-) Culture (+) 115 (20.1) 84 (21.6)  
Pulmonary culture negative 96 (16.8) 48 (12.4)  
Extrapulmonary 159 (27.8) 104 (26.8) 0.22
Chest X-ray in Pulmonary TB    
Normal 88 (15.4) 67 (17.3)  
Cavitary 138 (24.1) 101(26)  
Non Cavitary 337 (58.9) 218 (56.2) 0.49
CT e    
Performed 317 (55.4) 257 (66.2)  
Not performed 255 (44.6) 131 (33.8) < 0.001
  1. Barcelona 2000-2002 and 2003-2005
  2. a Community health worker. bInterquartile range. cInjecting drug use. dTuberculosis. eConventional contact tracing