Skip to main content

Table 6 Second order interaction effects and main effects in subgroups

From: Physical environmental factors related to walking and cycling in older adults: the Belgian aging studies

PA domain Environmental factors Interaction effect
(β, SE)
Main effect in subgroups (OR, 95%C.I.)1
   Environmental factor * urbanization * age Rural Semi-urban Urban
    < 75 ≥ 75 < 75 ≥ 75 < 75 ≥ 75
Walking for transportation Number of shops 0.04 (0.02) 1.02 (1.01, 1.04)* 1.01 (0.99, 1.02) 1.05 (1.04, 1.07)* 1.04 (1.02, 1.05)* 1.03 (1.01, 1.04)* 1.05 (1.04, 1.07)*
  Public transportation subscriptions 0.49 (0.17) 1.00 (0.75, 1.32) 0.79 (0.58, 1.07) 0.79 (0.56, 1.13) 0.85 (0.63, 1.15) 1.36 (1.13, 1.62)* 1.39 (1.12, 1.73)*
Walking/cycling for recreation Short distances to services -0.14 (0.06) 1.07 (1.03, 1.11)* 1.12 (1.07, 1.17)* 1.12 (1.08, 1.16)* 1.06 (1.02, 1.11)* 1.04 (1.00, 1.09)* 1.02 (0.97, 1.06)
  % public transportation subscriptions 0.67 (0.21) 1.37 (0.90, 2.07) 0.91 (0.59, 1.40) 1.34 (0.88, 2.05) 1.18 (0.86, 1.63) 0.92 (0.77, 1.11) 1.13 (0.91, 1.39)
   Environmental factor * urbanization * gender Rural Semi-urban Urban
    Males Females Males Females Males Females
Cycling for transportation Presence of public toilets -0.27 (0.11) 1.07 (0.93, 1.23) 1.00 (0.87, 1.16) 1.09 (0.97, 1.23) 0.98 (0.87, 1.11) 0.98 (0.86, 1.12) 0.86 (0.74, 1.00)
  Presence of benches -0.25 (0.11) 1.02 (0.89, 1.17) 1.21 (1.04, 1.41)* 1.09 (0.97, 1.24) 0.93 (0.82, 1.06) 1.06 (0.92, 1.23) 1.01 (0.86, 1.19)
  Presence of street lighting -0.28 (0.10) 0.85 (0.73, 1.00) 1.31 (1.07, 1.60)* 0.89 (0.76, 1.04) 0.97 (0.83, 1.14) 1.16 (0.95, 1.41) 1.00 (0.82, 1.23)
Walking/cycling for recreation Public transport 0.15 (0.08) 1.09 (1.02, 1.16)* 1.05 (1.00, 1.12) 1.11(1.05, 1.18)* 1.12 (1.06, 1.18)* 1.07 (1.00, 1.14)* 1.09 (1.02, 1.15)*
  Presence of crossings -0.17 (0.08) 0.94 (0.82, 1.07) 1.00 (0.88, 1.13) 1.03 (0.90, 1.18) 0.95 (0.84, 1.07) 1.05 (0.90, 1.21) 0.98 (0.85, 1.13)
   Environmental factor * age * gender < 75 ≥ 75
    Males Females Males Females
Walking for transportation Absence of decay -0.21 (0.10) 0.71 (0.61, 0.83)* 0.70 (0.61, 0.81)* 0.74 (0.59, 0.92)* 0.82 (0.67, 1.00)
  Absence of noise -0.23 (0.11) 0.87 (0.79, 0.97)* 0.73 (0.66, 0.81)* 0.81 (0.71, 0.93)* 0.77 (0.68, 0.87)*
Cycling for transportation Presence of public toilets -0.79 (0.15) 1.06 (0.97, 1.16) 0.93 (0.84, 1.03) 1.04 (0.91, 1.18) 1.00 (0.86, 1.16)
  Presence of benches -0.73 (0.13) 1.10 (1.00, 1.20) 1.05 (0.95, 1.16) 0.96 (0.84, 1.10) 1.01 (0.87, 1.18)
  Presence of crossings -0.81 (0.14) 1.03 (0.93, 1.14) 1.00 (0.89, 1.12) 1.08 (0.93, 1.25) 0.96 (0.81, 1.13)
  Traffic safety -0.76 (0.11) 0.77(0.70, 0.85)* 0.84 (0.76, 0.94)* 0.79 (0.69, 0.90)* 0.74 (0.64, 0.86)*
  Presence of street lighting -0.79 (0.12) 1.00 (0.88, 1.12) 1.16 (1.03, 1.30)* 0.87 (0.74, 1.03) 0.92 (0.76, 1.11)
Walking/cycling for recreation Presence of benches -0.38 (0.10) 1.01 (0.92, 1.12) 1.02 (0.93, 1.12) 1.00 (0.89, 1.13) 0.89 (0.81, 0.99)*
  Presence of crossings -0.44 (0.09) 1.05 (0.94, 1.16) 1.03 (0.93, 1.14) 0.97 (0.84, 1.12) 0.90 (0.81, 1.00)
  Traffic safety -0.54 (0.11) 0.84 (0.76, 0.92)* 0.86 (0.79, 0.95)* 0.86 (0.77, 0.97)* 0.67 (0.61, 0.74)*
  Presence of street lighting -0.34 (0.10) 1.00 (0.90, 1.11) 1.19 (1.05, 1.35)* 0.93 (0.80, 1.07) 1.00 (0.88, 1.14)
  Absence of decay -0.41 (0.10) 1.07 (0.91, 1.26) 0.85 (0.71, 1.01) 0.72 (0.58, 0.90)* 0.79 (0.65, 0.95)*
  Absence of noise -0.39 (0.10) 1.02 (0.93, 1.13) 0.95 (0.85, 1.06) 0.85 (0.75, 0.97)* 0.86 (0.76, 0.98)*
  1. 1 Controlled for educational level and number of functional limitations
  2. * p < 0.05