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Table 1 Sample characteristics by gender and ethnicity

From: Ethnic differences in the association between cardiovascular risk factors and psychological distress in a population study in the Netherlands

  Men Women
  Dutch Turkish Moroccan Dutch Turkish Moroccan
  (n = 201) (n = 180) (n = 175) (n = 283) (n = 203) (n = 141)
Sociodemographic characteristics       
Age (years (sd)) 51.2 (14.9) 48.8 (12.8) 52.2 (13.4) 51.3 (15.4) 42.6 (13.8) 44.6 (13.8)*
Educational level (%)       
 none or primary 12.1 57.5 63.9* 22.1 63.8 64.7*
 secondary 87.9 42.5 36.1 77.9 36.2 35.3
Employment (%)       
 employeda 63.6 40.2 37.0* 59.6 26.8 27.3*
 housewife/man 1.0 2.3 1.2 6.5 37.4 51.5
 retired 22.2 17.2 22.0 20.6 6.8 3.0
 unemployed 13.1 40.2 39.9 13.0 28.9 18.2
Psychological distress       
K10 (mean (sd)) 16.0 (5.9) 18.1 (8.1) 17.6 (9.1)* 16.0 (6.5) 18.6 (8.0) 17.9 (6.8)*
K10 ≥ 20 (%) 22.9 33.9 29.7 20.1 36.9 38.3*
Cardiovascular risk factor prevalence (%)       
Obesity 12.9 28.5 19.0 * 19.8 48.0 48.2 *
Abdominal obesity 56.2 72.2 68.0 * 75.3 87.6 85.0 *
Hypertension 58.9 52.2 46.7 47.1 35.7 33.6
Hypercholesterolemia 29.0 19.6 13.3 * 31.3 13.4 13.6 *
Low HDL cholesterol 14.9 37.2 30.9 * 19.4 53.2 42.6 *
Diabetes 5.1 11.0 18.8 * 2.9 8.4 16.1 *
  1. Notes:
  2. sd = standard deviation.
  3. a) employed includes people with paid jobs and students.
  4. * p < 0.05 (design-based chi-square or ANOVA) for difference between ethnic groups.