Skip to main content

Table 2 Profile of maternal, family and household antenatal exposures for the EFHL cohorts 2006-2010

From: Environments For Healthy Living (EFHL) Griffith birth cohort study: characteristics of sample and profile of antenatal exposures

  2006 (n=625) 2007 (n=475) 2008 (n=452) 2009 (n=621) 2010 (n=706) All Years (n=2879) P value
Maternal Characteristics n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)  
Maternal age        
<25 years 147 (23.6) 118 (24.9) 112 (24.8) 142 (22.9) 184 (26.1) 703 (24.5) 0.5367a
25-29 years 172 (27.5) 126 (26.5) 123 (27.3) 199 (32.2) 195 (27.7) 815 (28.4)  
30-34 years 187 (30.0) 133 (28.0) 119 (26.4) 142 (22.9) 180 (25.6) 761 (26.5)  
35-39 years 100 (16.0) 76 (16.0) 77 (17.1) 105 (17.0) 114 (16.2) 472 (16.4)  
40+ years 18 (2.9) 22 (4.6) 20 (4.4) 31 (5.0) 31 (4.4) 122 (4.2)  
Missing = 6        
Maternal BMI        
Underweight (<18.5) 104 (16.8) 80 (17.1) 77 (17.2) 109 (17.7) 120 (17.2) 490 (17.2) 0.0349a
Normal weight (18.5-24.9) 320 (51.8) 225 (48.1) 222 (49.5) 278 (45.3) 311 (44.6) 1356 (47.7)  
Overweight (25.0-29.9) 111 (18.0) 89 (19.0) 89 (19.9) 119 (19.4) 137 (19.7) 545 (19.1)  
Obese (>30) 83 (13.4) 74 (15.8) 60 (13.4) 108 (17.6) 129 (18.5) 454 (16.0)  
Missing = 34        
Country of Birth        
Australia 460 (73.6) 348 (73.3) 313 (69.4) 434 (69.9) 493 (69.9) 2048 (71.2) 0.3392b
Other 165 (26.4) 127 (26.7) 138 (30.6) 187 (30.1) 212 (30.1) 829 (28.8)  
Missing = 2        
Highest level of education        
Not complete school 129 (20.7) 93 (19.7) 88 (19.6) 147 (23.8) 143 (20.4) 600 (20.9) 0.4967a
Completed high school 201 (32.3) 163 (34.5) 139 (30.9) 178 (28.8) 212 (30.2) 893 (31.2)  
Trade/Apprenticeship 179 (28.7) 131 (27.7) 135 (30.0) 186 (30.1) 198 (28.3) 829 (28.9)  
University degree 114 (18.3) 86 (18.2) 88 (19.6) 107 (17.3) 148 (21.1) 543 (19.0)  
Missing = 14        
Employment Status        
Employed 314 (50.4) 241 (51.2) 223 (49.8) 310 (50.5) 355 (50.6) 1443 (50.5) 0.2176b
Unemployed 47 (7.5) 48 (10.2) 47 (10.5) 68 (11.1) 88 (12.5) 298(10.4)  
Not in labour force 262 (42.1) 182 (38.6) 178 (39.7) 236 (38.4) 259 (36.9) 1117(39.1)  
Missing = 21        
Paternal / Partner Characteristics d
Paternal age        
<25 years 100 (16.2) 72 (15.4) 81 (18.1) 91 (14.9) 123 (17.6) 467 (16.4) 0.7330a
25-29 years 169 (27.3) 113 (24.2) 123 (27.5) 175 (28.6) 182 (26.0) 762 (26.8)  
30-34 years 160 (25.9) 144 (30.8) 114 (25.5) 156 (25.5) 186 (26.6) 760 (26.7)  
35-39 years 120 (19.4) 92 (19.7) 84 (18.8) 121 (19.7) 131 (18.7) 548 (19.3)  
40+ years 69 (11.2) 46 (9.9) 45 (10.1) 70 (11.4) 77 (11.0) 307 (10.8)  
Missing = 35        
Paternal BMI        
Underweight (<18.5) 127 (20.6) 87 (18.3) 86 (19.2) 125 (20.5) 129 (18.6) 554 (19.5) 0.3110a
Normal weight (18.5-24.9) 169 (27.4) 125 (26.4) 127 (28.4) 171 (28.0) 192 (27.6) 784 (27.5)  
Overweight (25.0-29.9) 229 (37.1) 178 (37.6) 171 (38.3) 206 (33.7) 239 (34.4) 1023 (36.0)  
Obese (>30) 92 (14.9) 84 (17.7) 63 (14.1) 109 (17.8) 135 (19.4) 483 (17.0)  
Missing = 35        
Partners highest level of education        
Not complete school 128 (22.0) 88 (20.0) 106 (24.8) 139 (24.3) 148 (22.3) 609 (22.7) 0.9906a
Completed high school 153 (26.3) 126 (28.6) 96 (22.4) 146 (25.5) 170 (25.6) 691 (25.7)  
Trade/Apprenticeship 227 (39.1) 173 (39.3) 174 (40.7) 230 (40.1) 247 (37.3) 1051 (39.1)  
University degree 73 (12.6) 53 (12.1) 52 (12.1) 58 (10.1) 98 (14.8) 334 (12.4)  
Missing = 194        
Partners employment status        
Employed 552 (93.7) 420 (93.7) 395 (93.0) 535 (91.3) 612 (91.2) 2514 (92.5) 0.2499b
Unemployed 22 (3.7) 11 (2.5) 15 (3.5) 33 (5.6) 33 (4.9) 114 (4.2)  
Not in labour force 15 (2.6) 17 (3.8) 15 (3.5) 18 (3.1) 26 (3.9) 91 (3.3)  
Missing =160        
Household Characteristics        
Annual household income e        
Median $62,051 $63,295 $62,866 $62,733 $63,786 $62,946 0.4301c
Lowest quintile 7.4% 6.8% 7.0% 6.6% 7.0% 7.0%  
2nd quintile 13.2% 13.5% 12.3% 12.9% 12.5% 12.9%  
3rd quintile 17.9% 17.6% 16.9% 17.8% 16.5% 17.3%  
4th quintile 23.1% 23.1% 22.9% 22.8% 22.2% 22.8%  
Highest quintile 38.3% 39.0% 40.9% 40.0% 41.8% 40.0%  
Missing = 449        
Family status        
Sole parent family 89 (14.4) 65 (13.7) 57 (12.7) 83 (13.4) 81 (11.6) 375 (13.1) 0.6477b
Two parent family 531 (85.6) 409 (86.3) 393 (87.3) 535 (86.6) 616 (88.4) 2484 (86.9)  
Missing = 20        
Children in household        
No children 284 (46.3) 169 (36.7) 163 (36.6) 214 (34.5) 279 (39.5) 1109 (38.9) 0.0138a
1-3 children 310 (50.6) 275 (59.7) 265 (59.4) 380 (61.2) 398 (56.4) 1628 (57.2)  
4 or more children 19 (3.1) 17 (3.7) 18 (4.0) 27 (4.4) 29 (4.1) 110 (3.9)  
Missing = 32        
Changed place of residence in past year        
Moved 282 (45.2) 212 (44.8) 192 (43.4) 257 (42.3) 288 (41.9) 1231 (43.4) 0.7118b
Did not move 342 (54.8) 261 (55.2) 250 (56.6) 351 (57.7) 399 (58.1) 1603 (56.6)  
Missing = 45        
Satisfaction with area of residence        
Satisfied 542 (86.9) 414 (87.3) 390 (87.3) 526 (85.2) 605 (86.6) 2477 (86.6) 0.6536a
Neither 57 (9.1) 41 (8.7) 44 (9.8) 72 (11.7) 72 (10.3) 286 (10.0)  
Dissatisfied 25 (4.0) 19 (4.0) 13 (2.9) 19 (3.1) 22 (3.1) 98 (3.4)  
Missing = 18        
Perceived neighbourhood community connectedness        
Strong NA 59 (12.7) 65 (14.6) 110 (18.1) 101 (14.7) 335 (15.2) 0.1297a
Average NA 314 (67.8) 299 (67.3) 383 (63.1) 475 (69.0) 1471 (66.8)  
Poor NA 90 (19.4) 80 (18.0) 114 (18.8) 112 (16.3) 396 (18.0)  
Missing = 677        
Maternal Health and Behaviours during pregnancy        
Maternal psychological distress        
Low distress NA 363 (77.6) 346 (78.6) 478 (79.8) 568 (82.7) 1755 (80.0) 0.0191a
Moderate distress NA 81 (17.3) 77 (17.5) 98 (16.4) 98 (14.3) 354 (16.1)  
High distress NA 24 (5.1) 17 (3.9) 23 (3.8) 21 (3.1) 85 (3.9)  
Missing = 685        
Cigarette smoking        
Smoked 159 (25.5) 127 (26.9) 117 (25.9) 167 (27.1) 179 (25.4) 749 (26.1) 0.9466b
Did not smoke 465 (74.5) 346 (73.1) 335 (74.1) 450 (72.9) 525 (74.6) 2121 (73.9)  
Missing = 9        
Alcohol use        
Consumed alcohol 316 (50.7) 252 (53.2) 223 (49.3) 277 (44.9) 287 (40.8) 1355 (47.2) <0.0001b
No alcohol consumed 307 (49.3) 222 (46.8) 229 (50.7) 340 (55.1) 417 (59.2) 1515 (52.8)  
Missing = 9        
Recreational drug use        
Used drugs 45 (7.4) 33 (7.0) 29 (6.6) 34 (5.6) 34 (4.9) 175 (6.2) 0.3526b
Did not use drugs 566 (92.6) 440 (93.0) 411 (93.4) 574 (94.4) 659 (95.1) 2650 (93.8)  
Missing = 54        
Multivitamin supplement use        
Used supplements NA 305 (66.9) 273 (61.2) 407 (67.4) 445 (64.1) 1430 (65.0) 0.1529b
Did not use supplements NA 151 (33.1) 173 (38.8) 197 (32.6) 249 (35.9) 770 (35.0)  
Missing = 679        
  1. a Gamma statistic for ordinal data,b Pearsons chi-squared test for nominal data,c Median-test for ordinal data,d‘Paternal’ indicates biological father, ‘Partner’ indicates current relationship partner not necessarily the biological father, eGross annual household incomes standardised in AUD$2010 values.