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Table 8 Popularity of methods “At” and “From”, means and standard deviations, t-tests and p-values

From: Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study

  “At” “From”   
Method M SD M SD t P
Persuasive Communication 4.85 0.37 4.15 1.14 2.77 .01
Tailoring 4.20 1.01 4.40 0.99 −0.66 .52
Modeling 4.30 0.66 4.55 0.69 −1.56 .14
Feedback 4.35 0.93 4.65 0.59 −1.19 .25
Reinforcement/Punishment 3.65 1.04 4.05 0.89 −2.03 .06
Facilitation 4.50 0.89 4.45 1.00 0.25 .80
Consciousness Raising 4.60 0.82 4.15 1.18 1.69 .11
Direct Experience 3.70 1.22 4.10 1.07 −2.18 .04
Info about others’ approval 4.35 0.88 4.05 0.76 1.19 .25
Resistance to Social Pressure 3.30 1.13 3.60 0.88 −0.88 .39
Goal Setting 4.15 0.99 4.55 0.60 −1.71 .10
Systems Change 3.95 1.15 3.95 1.15 0.00 .00
Participatory Problem Solving 4.25 0.72 3.90 0.91 1.44 .17
Coercion 1.95 1.05 2.10 1.21 −0.57 .58
Advocacy and Lobbying 4.25 0.72 2.85 1.31 4.63 .00
Technical Assistance 4.45 0.83 4.35 0.81 0.57 .58
Sense-making 3.55 1.00 3.65 0.88 −0.44 .67
Organ. Diagnosis and Feedback 4.45 0.76 3.45 1.19 3.25 .00
Team Building 3.70 1.13 3.65 1.31 0.16 .87
Structural Redesign 3.45 1.15 3.70 1.13 −0.69 .50
Increasing Stakeholder Influence 3.70 1.13 3.10 1.37 1.71 .10
Social Action 2.90 1.33 2.60 1.27 1.45 .16
Forming Coalitions 3.65 0.93 3.10 1.02 2.77 .01
Reporting, Social Planning 3.70 1.03 3.20 1.11 1.88 .08
Media Advocacy 3.35 1.18 2.95 1.36 1.57 .13