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Table 1 Grounds and factors relevant to Return-to-work Effort Sufficiency in depressive disorder according to focus groups, sorted using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model

From: Exploring factors relevant in the assessment of the return-to-work process of employees on long-term sickness absence due to a depressive disorder: a focus group study

Factor Ground example
Activities  
Functional capacity "The type and severity of limitations are important to assess suitability for work"
Job demands vs. functional capacity "The suitability of the employee's own work determines the RTW goal"
Personal  
Competencies "The chances of RTW are higher in work which matches the competencies of the employee"
Attitude "The attitude of the employee determines the progress of the RTW process"
Self-efficacy "Fear of RTW can lead to inadequate RTW behaviour of the employee"
Illness perception "A negative illness perception can delay the RTW process"
Environmental  
Work-relatedness of sickness absence "The focus of the RTW process is determined by the work-relatedness of the absence"
Job availability "The possibilities at the previous employer co-determine the chances of RTW"
Employer size "Employer size indicates the possibilities for the employee to return to his/her original employer"
Employer attitude "The employer has to support the employee in RTW at his/her company"
Relationship employer/employee "The relationship between employer and employee can promote the RTW process"
Communication quality and quantity "Communication quantity is not necessarily an indicator of communication quality"
Interventions  
Training/education "Interventions such as job training can optimize RTW"
Job offerings "An offered job with the prospect of returning to the original job increases the chance of acceptance by the employee"
Professional advice "Professional advice can influence the RTW process"
Job accommodations  
Temporary/modified duty "Offering temporary work can influence the chance of RTW, because the employee does not leave the work force"
Change of employer "If RTW is prolonged and chances of RTW are reduced, return to a different employer should be investigated"
Measures  
Research/assessment "The employer has to investigate the possibilities at his/her company"
Monitoring "The progress of the employee should be monitored by the employer"