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Table 2 Summary of major pre-clinical trial studies of aerosol measles vaccines presented to the expert group for stage II of the CHNRI process

From: An evaluation of respiratory administration of measles vaccine for prevention of acute lower respiratory infections in children

Reference Factor for investigation Results Comment
Low, N et al
de Vries et al [24, 35]
Vaccine strain EZ > Schwarz in all studies. In South Africa, the Schwarz strain was inactivated as an aerosol.
Laube, B.L [26] Device selection 3 systems for entry at clinical trial: Un-vented, Breath-enhanced & Ultrasonic nebulizer. All models fulfil safety and logistic criteria. Suitability criteria – portable, easy to use, battery-operated, sanitary, operable with replacement parts.
Coates, A.L et al[52] Viral particle size Minimum < 10μm
Deep lung deposition <5μm
Size of inhaled droplet is best determinant of lung deposition
Coates, A.L et al[52] Number of infective particles <1000 pfu’s; 30-250 pfu’s required to stimulate immune response 5000 pfu’s delivered in percutaneous measles vaccine
Cohen, B.J et al[53] Potency retention 85-102% vaccine potency retention in all 3 measles aerosol device’s. Potential disaggregation of viral particles during aerosolization accounts for results >100%
de Swart, R. L et al [54] Animal model – safety No superimposed risk in immunocompromised or asthmatics.
No risk of vaccine-associated encephalitis or Bells palsy identified.
Concern of illness exacerbation in vulnerable groups. Postulation of direct CNS contact through cribiform plate precipitating neurological symptoms.