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Table 1 Baseline participant characteristics by history of diagnosed diabetes

From: The excess mortality risk of diabetes associated with functional decline in older adults: Results from a 7-year follow-up of a nationwide cohort in Taiwan

  History of diagnosed diabetes P-value*
  Overall No Yes  
N 1873 1587 286  
Age (years; mean ± SE) 73.0 ± 0.14 73.0 ± 0.15 73.1 ± 0.36 0.943
Sex (% female) 48.7 48.7 48.6 0.973
Education (years; mean ± SE) 4.9 ± 0.11 4.9 ± 0.12 5.1 ± 0.30 0.535
Marital status (%married or living with partner) 66.8 67.2 64.3 0.338
Smoking status (%current) 19.4 19.7 17.8 0.454
Functional status (%)
High 47.7 50.5 32.5 < 0.001
Middle 44.6 43.0 53.8  
Low 7.6 6.6 13.6  
Heart disease (% yes) 23.4 21.6 32.9 < 0.001
Hypertension (% yes) 39.6 37.3 52.3 < 0.001
Stroke (% yes) 7.6 6.4 14.4 < 0.001
Number of other conditions (%)
0 49.6 52.1 35.3 < 0.001
1 32.8 32.4 34.5  
≥ 2 17.7 15.4 30.2  
Duration of diabetes (years; mean ± SE)    10.0 ± 0.55 -
Use Insulin (% yes)    19.7 -
  1. *Continuous variables were compared using the Student's t-test and shown as the mean ± standard error (SE). Categorical variables were compared using Pearson's Chi-square test and shown as percentages.
  2. Other conditions include heart disease, hypertension, and stroke.