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Table 1 Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses of the potential prognostic factors contributing to claim duration in self-employed persons

From: Prognostic factors for disability claim duration due to musculoskeletal symptoms among self-employed persons

Individual Personal factors - N(%) Categories Total N = 276 Univariate HR1 p Multivariate HR (95% CI) p
Age - ≤ 40 year 70 (25%) 1 - 1 -
  - 41-50 year 131 (48%) 0.89 0.47 0.54 (0.36-0.80) 0.002
  - > 50 year 74 (27%) 0.96 0.81 0.64 (0.41-0.99) 0.05
Gender - female 20 (7%) 1 - 1 -
  - male 256 (93%) 1.25 0.45 1.59 (0.78-3.21) 0.20
General health - poor health 36 (13%) 1 - 1 -
  - good health 240 (87%) 1.51 0.06 0.90 (0.54-1.49) 0.68
Marital status - living alone 25 (8%) 1 -   
  - living together 251 (92%) 0.83 0.42 - -
Physical Disease-related factorsbody functions
History of similar symptoms -yes - no 108 (39%) 1 - 1 -
  - yes 168 (61%) 1.50 0.004 2.20 (1.52-3.18) < 0.001
Pain severity prev. 6 months mean (sd) 5.6 (2.3) 0.94 0.02 0.96 (0.89-1.04) 0.32
Location musculoskeletal symptoms - no symptoms 56 (21%) 1 - 1 -
  - upper extremity 33 (12%) 0.82 0.40 1.16 (0.64-2.10) 0.63
  - back 55 (20%) 0.95 0.78 1.04 (0.63-1.72) 0.88
  - lower extremity 23 (8%) 0.47 0.01 0.49 (0.23-1.06) 0.07
  - multiple locations 106 (39%) 0.58 0.003 0.72 (0.45-1.17) 0.18
Duration of symptoms - < 2 months 107 (39%) 1 - 1 -
  - 2-6 months 90 (33%) 0.65 0.007 0.75 (0.50-1.14) 0.18
  - > 6 months 77 (28%) 0.53 < 0.001 0.60 (0.38-0.95) 0.03
Functional status neck pain (NDI) - little pain 90 (33%) 1 - 1 -
  - medium pain 78 (29%) 0.76 0.11 0.72 (0.45-1.16) 0.18
  - much pain 103 (38%) 0.67 0.01 0.56 (0.30-1.02) 0.06
Functional status back pain (QBPDS) - little pain 87 (34%) 1 - 1 -
  - medium pain 90 (34%) 0.74 0.08 1.28 (0.81-2.03) 0.29
  - much pain 84 (32%) 0.78 0.14 1.42 (0.75-2.69) 0.29
Interaction: NDI * time   - 1.00 0.26 - -
Interaction: QBPDS * time   - 1.00 0.24 - -
Treatment by GP or (para)medical specialist - no 36 (13%) 1 -   
  - yes 240 (87%) 0.86 0.46 - -
External Environmental factors
Hired employee since claim--yes - no 173 (62%) 1 -   
  - yes 103 (38%) 0.84 0.22 - -
Financial situation company - not good 31 (11%) 1 -   
  - good 245 (89%) 0.83 0.39 - -
Insured daily compensation (Euro) - 0-50 56 (21%) 1 - 1 -
  - 50-75 97 (36%) 1.37 0.12 1.40 (0.88-2.22) 0.16
  - 75-100 90 (33%) 1.52 0.03 1.52 (0.97-2.39) 0.07
  - > 100 26 (10%) 1.21 0.49 1.51 (0.80-2.87) 0.21
Deferment period-- > 14 days - ≤14 days 161 (58%) 1 - 1 -
  - > 14 days 115 (42%) 0.70 0.01 0.83 (0.59-1.17) 0.29
Other factorsMental body functions
Fear of movement - low fear 111 (37%) 1 - 1 -
  - high fear 165 (63%) 0.73 0.03 0.94 (0.67-1.33) 0.74
Self-predicted timing RTW - < 1 month 56 (21%) 1 - 1 -
  - > 1 month/never 82 (30%) 0.28 < 0.001 0.24 (0.15-0.38) < 0.001
  - no idea 134 (49%) 0.25 < 0.001 0.23 (0.15-0.34) < 0.001
Job satisfaction - not satisfied 38 (13%) 1 - 1 -
  - satisfied 238 (87%) 1.42 0.10 1.85 (1.13-3.04) 0.02
Perceived intensity of physical work range 1-4, higher is heavier mean: 2.8 (sd 0.76) 0.90 0.23 - -
Interaction: perceived physical work * time   - 1.00 0.16 - -
Work pace/quantity (job demands) - low 79 (29%) 1 -   
  - medium 98 (37%) 1.31 0.11 - -
  - high 91 (34%) 1.00 0.98   
Willingness to participate in a RCT - yes 180 (65%) 1 - 1 -
  - no 96 (35%) 1.59 0.001 1.41 (1.02-1.92) 0.04
  1. 1A HR of > 1 indicates a shorter time to RTW