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Table 4 Mean number of cigarettes/cigars smoked per daya

From: Neighbourhood crime and smoking: the role of objective and perceived crime measures

   Model 1b Model 2c Model 3d
Police-recorded crime rate ncases Mean p-value e(F) Mean p-value(F) Mean p-value(F)
All respondents 570   0.02 (3.78)   0.16 (1.84)   0.18 (1.71)
   Low 126 13.79   14.27   14.28  
   Medium 196 13.79   13.93   13.93  
   High 248 15.79   15.44   15.43  
Men 257   0.05 (3.01)   0.09 (2.40)   0.10 (2.31)
   Low 63 14.89   15.21   15.26  
   Medium 83 13.37   13.46   13.46  
   High 111 16.41   16.16   16.12  
Women 303   0.14 (2.02)   0.62 (0.48)   0.66 (0.42)
   Low 63 12.69   13.52   13.54  
   Medium 113 14.10   14.21   14.22  
   High 137 15.30   14.83   14.81  
Resident-perceived crime
All respondents 570   0.75 (0.53)   0.75 (0.53)   0.59 (0.62)
   Low 147 14.57   14.59   14.74  
   Medium 117 14.49   14.66   14.70  
   Medium-high 99 13.73   13.64   13.68  
   High 207 15.27   15.20   15.06  
Men 257   0.44 (0.72)   0.64 (0.59)   0.58 (0.63)
   Low 63 14.81   15.02   15.15  
   Medium 60 14.93   14.86   14.90  
   Medium-high 43 14.02   13.69   13.66  
   High 91 15.79   15.85   15.74  
Women 303   0.34 (0.80)   0.31 (0.82)   0.21 (0.89)
   Low 84 14.39   14.26   14.40  
   Medium 57 14.02   14.35   14.38  
   Medium-high 56 13.50   13.48   13.55  
   High 116 14.86   14.81   14.66  
  1. n cases number of cases
  2. aAmong current smokers only
  3. bModel 1: Unadjusted (includes smoking and crime rate or perceived crime only)
  4. cModel 2: Model adjusted for sex, age cohort, SES and employment status
  5. dModel 3: Model adjusted for sex, age cohort, SES and employment status and perceived neighbourhood crime (for objective crime model) and for objective crime (for perceived crime model); sex-specific models adjusted for these confounders excluding sex
  6. e p-values < 0.05 are suggestive of a statistically significant difference in mean number of cigarettes smoked daily by individuals across crime categories