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Table 3 Associations (odds ratios) between social, demographic, perinatal factors and suicide risk or self-harm.

From: Perinatal and psychosocial circumstances associated with risk of attempted suicide, non-suicidal self-injury and psychiatric service use. A longitudinal study of young people

  Suicide attempt by age 15 Suicide risk:
Suicidal ideation/attempt by age 15
NSSI by 19
Covariates Unadjust Adjusted Unadjust Adjusted Unadjust Adjusted
Psychosocial       
Sex @11       
   Male 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Female 3.20 (1.93-5.30) 3.06 (1.79-5.22) 2.77 (1.91-4.03) 2.69 (1.83-3.96) 1.32 (0.89-1.97) 1.25 (0.82-1.89)
Social class @11p       
   Non-manual 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Manual 1.39 (0.86-2.25) 1.20 (0.71-2.03) 1.20 (0.85-1.69) 1.03 (0.66-1.59) 0.90 (0.55-1.45) 0.85 (0.49-1.49)
Family structure @15       
   2-parent 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00   1.00
   1-parent, 1.48 (0.80-2.73) 1.25 (0.64-2.44) 1.34 (0.80-2.26) 1.20 (0.67-2.15) 1.43 (0.77-2.65) 1.34 (0.70-2.56)
   reconstituted/Other 3.21 (1.93-5.34) 2.37 (1.30-4.34) 2.51 (1.61-3.92) 2.10 (1.27-3.48) 2.84 (1.43-5.65) 2.47 (1.20-5.10)
Same sex part @19       
   No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Yes 2.19 (0.68-7.07) 1.39 (0.33-5.78) 1.48 (0.59-3.72) 1.03 (0.33-3.26) 4.84 (2.24-10.46) 3.85 (1.67-8.87)
Gender conform @15       
   Gender typical 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Gender conformist 0.79 (0.34-1.81) 0.82 (0.36-1.89) 0.82 (0.42-1.62) 0.87 (0.44-1.72) 0.95 (0.51-1.78) 1.01 (0.51-1.99)
   Gender nonconformist 1.89 (1.06-3.35) 1.65 (0.80-3.41) 1.24 (0.72-2.16) 1.12 (0.58-2.19) 1.84 (0.91-3.71) 1.38 (0.59-3.22)
Religion @11p       
   Protestant 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Roman Catholic 0.92 (0.55-1.52) 0.89 (0.52-1.54) 0.88 (0.58-1.32) 0.88 (0.57-1.38) 0.77 (0.48-1.22) 0.81 (0.50-1.34)
   Other (Baptist, etc) 0.99 (0.49-1.99) 1.15 (0.54-2.44) 0.66 (0.34-1.28) 0.72 (0.36-1.47) 1.17 (0.64-2.11) 1.28 (0.63-2.60)
   None/Atheist/Agnostic 1.09 (0.57-2.08) 0.97 (0.49-1.91) 0.91 (0.54-1.56) 0.84 (0.48-1.46) 1.11 (0.54-2.29) 1.01 (0.46-2.21)
Area deprivation @11 1.09 (0.96-1.23) 1.04 (0.89-1.20) 1.04 (0.95-1.14) 0.99 (0.88-1.12) 1.01 (0.90-1.13) 1.02 (0.88-1.17)
Lack of par Care @15 1.33 (1.19-1.49) 1.30 (1.15-1.47) 1.34 (1.21-1.49) 1.33 (1.18-1.49) 1.32 (1.18-1.48) 1.30 (1.16-1.46)
Parental control @15 1.15 (0.96-1.37) 1.18 (0.98-1.43) 1.10 (0.94-1.29) 1.13 (0.96-1.33) 0.99 (0.82-1.19) 0.97 (0.79-1.18)
Perinatal all @11p       
Maternal parity       
0 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   1 or more 1.11 (0.70-1.76) 1.67 (0.60-4.65) 1.06 (0.70-1.60) 1.44 (0.65-3.20) 0.77 (0.45-1.32) 0.74 (0.28-1.92)
Family size       
   2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   3 or more 0.78 (0.45-1.34) 1.03 (0.47-2.29) 0.96 (0.58-1.58) 1.19 (0.61-2.30) 1.08 (0.35-3.34) 1.50 (0.39-5.85)
Birth weight (g)       
   <2500 1.44 (0.63-3.30) 1.46 (0.56-3.84) 1.30 (0.65-2.58) 1.39 (0.66-2.94) 0.70 (0.33-1.50) 0.67 (0.28-1.64)
   2500-3249 1.12 (0.71-1.77) 1.13 (0.70-1.84) 1.08 (0.75-1.55) 1.09 (0.74-1.61) 0.57 (0.33-1.00) 0.57 (0.30-1.10)
   3250-3749 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   3750+ 0.74 (0.42-1.30) 1.04 (0.58-1.88) 0.81 (0.51-1.29) 1.03 (0.63-1.70) 0.71 (0.40-1.23) 0.80 (0.44-1.48)
N birth complications       
   0 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   1 0.88 (0.49-1.58) 0.97 (0.53-1.78) 0.71 (0.43-1.16) 0.74 (0.44-1.25) 1.10 (0.62-1.96) 1.21 (0.65-2.27)
   2 or more 0.90 (0.47-1.74) 1.00 (0.49-2.02) 0.84 (0.50-1.40) 0.90 (0.51-1.58) 1.36 (0.74-2.51) 1.72 (0.91-3.28)
Birth spacing (prior)       
   Under 2 years 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   2-5 years 0.82 (0.45-1.49) 0.88 (0.46-1.68) 1.00 (0.59-1.67) 1.06 (0.61-1.84) 0.86 (0.50-1.50) 0.86 (0.46-1.59)
   6+ years or singleton 1.02 (0.60-1.72) 0.91 (0.48-1.74) 1.03 (0.64-1.65) 1.00 (0.58-1.74) 0.68 (0.43-1.09) 0.69 (0.39-1.22)
Birth spacing (later)       
   Under 2 years 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   2-5 years 0.73 (0.39-1.38) 0.81 (0.42-1.57) 0.80 (0.46-1.40) 0.85 (0.48-1.52) 0.66 (0.31-1.42) 0.73 (0.32-1.69)
   6+ years or singleton 0.92 (0.55-1.55) 1.25 (0.54-2.93) 0.95 (0.58-1.57) 1.15 (0.54-2.46) 0.96 (0.59-1.56) 0.67 (0.26-1.70)
Maternal age (years)       
   15-19 1.84 (0.92-3.67) 1.25 (0.59-2.66) 1.68 (0.90-3.11) 1.27 (0.65-2.49) 0.92 (0.31-2.74) 0.86 (0.28-2.65)
   20-24 1.25 (0.79-2.00) 1.00 (0.58-1.71) 1.20 (0.81-1.78) 1.05 (0.66-1.66) 1.11 (0.65-1.89) 1.04 (0.58-1.88)
   25-29 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   30-34 0.82 (0.45-1.51) 0.86 (0.45-1.66) 1.04 (0.66-1.64) 1.04 (0.63-1.73) 1.19 (0.73-1.96) 1.23 (0.74-2.07)
   35-46 1.09 (0.47-2.53) 1.29 (0.51-3.24) 1.25 (0.62-2.53) 1.44 (0.68-3.08) 1.03 (0.45-2.37) 1.02 (0.38-2.74)
Breastfeeding       
   None 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Less than 6 months 0.78 (0.43-1.43) 0.94 (0.49-1.79) 0.67 (0.40-1.13) 0.75 (0.43-1.33) 0.90 (0.51-1.60) 0.96 (0.48-1.88)
   6 months or more 0.63 (0.34-1.16) 0.87 (0.42-1.80) 0.75 (0.47-1.18) 0.87 (0.52-1.45) 0.89 (0.48-1.68) 0.90 (0.47-1.74)
  1. Significant odds ratios (p = 0.05 or lower) are shown in bold. Final sample with multiple imputation = 2157.
  2. @11 = participant provided information at age 11; @15 = information provided at age 15; @19 = information provided at age 19; @11p = parental figure provided information when participants age 11.