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Table 1 Descriptive analysis: Child, caregiver, household characteristics and undernutrition

From: Undernutrition among HIV-positive children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: antiretroviral therapy alone is not enough

  HIV Negative (N = 202) HIV Positive (N = 213)  
Variable N Mean % SD N Mean % SD P-Value
Age child(Months)   14.5   9.6   38.6   15.6 < 0.001
   6-12 months 115   56.9   15   7.0   
   13-24 months 62   30.7   29   13.6   < 0.001
   >24 months 25   12.4   169   79.3   
Sex          
   Male 109   54.0   113   53.1   0.931
   Female 93   46.0   100   46.9   
Orphan hood          
   Yes 2   1.0   59   27.7   < 0.001
   No 200   99.0   154   72.3   
Birth weight          
   ≥2500 g 169   83.7   154   72.3   0.008
   <2500 g 33   16.3   59   27.7   
Age caregiver(Years)   27.8   5.4   33.0   8.1 < 0.001
Caregiver's education          
   ≤ Primary 110   54.5   165   77.5   < 0.001
   ≥ Secondary 92   45.5   48   22.5   
Major religions          
   Christian 93   46.0   102   47.9   0.255
   Moslem 109   54.0   111   52.1   
Employment status          
   Not employed 103   49.0   148   69.5   <0.001
   Employed 99   51.0   65   30.5   
Marital status caregiver          
   Married 182   90.1   164   77.0   <0.001
   Not married 20   9.9   49   23.0   
Wealth index (tercile)          
   High 102   50.5   57   26.8   <0.001
   Middle 59   29.2   69   32.4   
   Low 41   20.3   87   40.8   
Food security score (0-6)          
   Secured 150   74.3   101   47.4   < 0.001
   Insecure 26   12.9   35   16.4   
   Hunger 26   12.9   77   36.2   
Dietary diversity score          
   ≥ 6 132   65.3   95   44.6   <0.001
   < 6 70   34.7   118   55.4   
Currently breastfed          
   Yes 142   70.3   3   1.4   <0.001
   No 60   29.7   210   98.6   
Diarrhea(past 6 months)          
   Yes 35   17.3   82   38.5   <0.001
   No 167   82.7   131   61.5   
Malaria (past 6 months)          
   Yes 46   22.8   83   39.9   0.001
   No 156   77.2   130   61.0   
Hospitalization(past 6 months)          
   Yes 16   7.9   61   28.6   <0.001
   No 186   92.1   152   71.4   
ART Duration (months)       18.0   12.40  
WAZ (Underweight)          
   Normal 189   93.5   166   77.9   <0.001
   Moderate 9   4.5   33   15.5   
   Severe 4   2.0   14   6.6   
WHZ (Wasting)          
   Normal 200   99.0   184   86.4   <0.001
   Moderate 2   1.0   20   9.4   
   Severe 0   0.0   9   4.2   
HAZ (Stunting)          
   Normal 158   78.2   135   63.4   0.004
   Moderate 29   14.4   49   23.0   
   Severe 15   7.4   29   13.6