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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample

From: The incidence of experimental smoking in school children: an 8-year follow-up of the child and adolescent behaviors in long-term evolution (CABLE) study

  Never smoked Smoked   
Characteristic n (%) n (%) χ 2
Gender (n = 2686)      78.21 ***
   Boys 831 (60.13) 551 (39.87)   
   Girls 992 (76.07) 312 (23.93)   
Residential area (n = 2686)      43.88 ***
   Taipei (urban) 1062 (73.39) 385 (26.61)   
   Hsinchu (rural) 761 (61.42) 478 (38.58)   
Perceived school performance (n = 2341)    6.46 *
   Poor 861 (67.21) 420 (32.79)   
   Fair 575 (64.90) 311 (35.10)   
   Good 130 (74.71) 44 (25.29)   
Single-parent family (n = 2668)      54.92 ***
   No 1559 (71.03) 636 (28.97)   
   Yes 253 (53.49) 220 (46.51)   
SES (n = 2611)      54.18 ***
   Low 341 (57.02) 257 (42.98)   
   Medium 1037 (69.41) 457 (30.59)   
   High 400 (77.07) 119 (22.93)   
Parental smoking (n = 2418)      84.48 ***
   Neither 743 (78.05) 209 (21.95)   
   One 815 (64.43) 450 (35.57)   
   Both 99 (49.25) 102 (50.75)   
Peer smoking (n = 2540)      463.45 ***
   None 556 (90.11) 61 (9.89)   
   Few 900 (71.60) 357 (28.40)   
   Over half 234 (35.14) 432 (64.86)   
Community attachment (n = 2686)     12.71 **
   Low 591 (66.18) 302 (33.82)   
   Medium 893 (66.59) 448 (33.41)   
   High 339 (75.00) 113 (25.00)   
Scores Mean (SD) Mean (SD) t  
Depressive symptoms 11.06 (2.76) 11.57 (2.79) -4.46 ***
Self-competence 21.15 (4.01) 20.28 (3.97) 5.13 ***
Parental support 18.89 (4.32) 17.29 (4.71) 8.41 ***
Parental supervision 13.22 (2.82) 12.21 (3.19) 7.74 ***
School attachment 10.86 (1.43) 10.22 (1.54) 10.18 ***
  1. *: p < 0.05; **: p < 0.01; ***: p < 0.001