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Table 4 Linear regression assessing baselinea variables associated with waist circumference change in participants not meeting WC guidelines

From: Participant characteristics associated with greater reductions in waist circumference during a four-month, pedometer-based, workplace health program

Group Predictor Variable n Crude WC change Univariate Multivariable Approach 1a Multivariable Approach 2b
     WC change (cm) P-value WC change (cm) P-value WC change (cm) P-value
  DEMOGRAPHICS         
1 Age (year) 288 - 0.03 0.4 0.03 0.4 0.03 0.4
  Sex         
     Female 185 -2.94 reference reference reference
     Male 103 -2.73 0.21 0.6 0.16 0.7 0.16 0.7
2 Socio Economic Status (by SEIFA %)        
     Most Advantaged 95 -2.84 reference reference reference
     Advantaged 122 -2.61 0.23 0.8 0.32 0.6 0.32 0.6
     Disadvantaged 52 -2.82 0.02 1.0 0.31 0.9 0.31 0.9
     Most Disadvantaged 18 -5.78 -2.94 0.1 -2.11 0.3 -2.11 0.3
  Tertiary Education         
     Not completed 69 -1.08 reference reference reference
     Completed 219 -3.43 -2.35 0.018 -2.35 0.017 -2.35 0.017
  Occupation         
     Professional 105 -2.34 reference reference reference
     Associate professional 53 -4.13 -1.79 0.06 -1.89 0.1 -1.89 0.1
     Manager 55 -3.52 -1.18 0.08 -1.00 0.2 -1.00 0.2
     Clerical or Service 48 -2.84 -0.50 0.7 -1.06 0.4 -1.06 0.4
  Marital Status         
     Married/de facto 200 -2.45 reference reference reference
     Widowed/separated/divorced 26 -4.82 -2.37 0.2 -2.42 0.2 -2.42 0.2
     Never married 60 -3.48 -1.02 0.3 -0.36 0.6 -0.36 0.6
  BASELINE MEASURES         
3    Prior GCC® Participationc 286 -2.86 0.08 0.8 -0.04 0.9 -0.04 0.9
  Reasons for Participation c         
  Health 286 -2.82 0.27 0.8 0.14 0.9 0.14 0.9
  To look my best 286 -2.80 0.32 0.5 0.32 0.6 0.32 0.6
  Fitness 286 -2.75 0.49 0.4 0.07 0.9 0.07 0.9
  Colleagues 286 -3.24 -0.81 0.053 -0.72 0.3 -0.72 0.3
  Friends or family 286 -4.01 -1.15 0.2 -1.10 0.3 -1.10 0.3
  Behavioural Measures         
4 Fruit Intake         
     Not meeting guidelines 188 -2.42 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 98 -3.77 -1.34 0.027 -0.96 0.3 -0.96 0.3
  Vegetable Intake         
     Not meeting guidelines 244 -2.77 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 42 -3.52 -0.75 0.4 0.40 0.8 0.32 0.8
  Takeaway Dinner         
     Once or less per month 132 -0.55 reference     
     About once a week 117 -1.34 -0.79 0.2 -0.63 0.2 -0.52 0.2
     More than once a week 37 -3.11 -2.55 0.7 -0.85 0.7 -0.73 0.7
  Alcohol         
     Not meeting guidelines 159 -2.95 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 127 -2.80 0.15 0.8 -0.28 0.6 -0.28 0.6
  Tobacco         
     Smoker 32 -1.30 reference     
     Non-smoker 254 -3.03 -1.73 0.2 0.38 0.7 0.49 0.6
  Physical Activity         
     Not meeting guidelines 178 -2.45 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 108 -3.60 -1.15 0.2 -0.92 0.3 -0.94 0.3
  Sitting Time (per hour per day)         
     Weekday 286 - 0.15 0.2 0.11 0.4 0.12 0.4
     Weekend 282 - 0.26 0.2 0.23 0.3 0.23 0.3
  Psychosocial Measures         
5 Physical Functioning (SF12) 282 - -0.11 0.049 -0.09 0.02 -0.07 0.2
  Mental Functioning (SF12) 282 - 0.00 1.0 -0.03 0.3 -0.02 0.5
  Anthropometric Measures d       
6 Blood Pressure (mmHg)         
     Systolic 273 - 0.02 0.4 0.00 1.0 0.00 0.9
     Diastolic 273 - 0.02 0.6 -0.01 0.8 -0.02 0.6
     Not meeting guidelines 56 -2.21 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 217 -3.03 -0.82 0.3     
  Heart rate (Mean, SD) 288 - -0.02 0.6 -0.02 0.7 -0.02 0.7
  Weight (Mean, SD)e 288 - 0.02 0.5     
  Body Mass Index         
     Body Mass Index 288 - 0.13 0.2 0.12 0.3 0.08 0.5
     Not meeting guidelines 238 -2.49 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 50 -4.63 -2.14 0.1     
  Waist circumferencef         
     Waist circumference 288 - -0.05 0.2     
     Not meeting guidelines 288 n/a     
     Meeting guidelines 0        
  Biomedical Measures (fasting) d       
7 Total Cholesterol         
     Total Cholesterol 285 - 0.47 0.2 0.79 0.051 0.86 0.014
     Not meeting guidelines 89 -2.71 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 196 -2.94 -0.23 0.7     
  Glucose         
     Glucose 285 - 2.29 0.8 0.22 0.6 0.03 0.3
     Not meeting guidelines 18 0.06 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 267 1.07 1.02 1.0     
  Triglycerides         
     Triglycerides 285 - 1.31 0.6 0.47 0.2 0.45 0.2
     Not meeting guidelines 73 0.03 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 212 1.96 1.93 0.4     
  Predicted risk scores d         
8 Cardiovascular disease risk (next 10 years)       
     CVD risk (continuous) 267 - 0.09 0.2 0.03 0.7 0.02 0.9
     Low-risk 227 -2.89 reference     
     Intermediate-risk 33 -2.79 0.09 0.9     
     High-risk 7 -2.91 -0.03 1.0     
  Diabetes risk (next 5 years)f       
     Diabetes risk (continuous) 285 - 0.06 0.3     
     Low-risk 67 -3.79 reference     
     Intermediate-risk 173 -2.34 1.45 0.033     
     High-risk 45 -3.55 0.24 0.6     
  WORKPLACE CHARACTERISTICS g       
9 Public ownership (vs. private) 288 -2.66 0.36 0.6 0.09 0.9 0.06 0.9
  Outer city location (vs. inner city) 288 -3.08 -0.68 0.4 -0.96 0.3 -1.34 0.2
  PROCESS MEASURES         
  Step data d        
10 Step average per day (per 10,000 steps) 288 - -1.04 0.08 -1.40 0.07 -0.55 0.6
     <10,000 steps average (per day) 190 -2.13 reference     
     Meeting ≥10,000 steps average (per day) 190 -3.24 -1.11 0.049     
  1. a Associated risk-factor subgroups adjusted only for baseline demographic confounders
  2. b Associated risk-factor subgroups adjusted for all potential predictors within the analysis Group and above
  3. c The reference group for this binary variable is 'no'. The reference group data is not shown.
  4. d Continuous variables chosen over categorical variables
  5. e Excluded due to the inclusion of body mass index (BMI)
  6. f Excluded from model as baseline WC was not considered as a predictor.
  7. g The reference group for this binary variable is shown in brackets. The reference group data is not shown.
  8. Note: For participants not meeting WC guidelines at baseline