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Table 2 Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) at baseline and its changes adjusted for baPWV at baseline during the period of follow-up of baseline characteristics

From: Metabolic syndrome is associated with change in subclinical arterial stiffness - A community-based Taichung Community Health Study

   baPWV at baseline Changes of baPWV during follow-up period*
Variable at baseline n Mean ± SD Adjusted mean ± SE p value
Sociodemographic factors       
Age       < 0.001
   40-50 years 500 1365.1 ± 212.7 -62.6 ± 10.8  
   51-60 years 522 1552.2 ± 281.5 -18.4 ± 9.6  
   61-70 years 291 1789.3 ± 366.2 70.9 ± 13.2  
   > 70 years 205 2147.2 ± 459.2 141.0 ± 18.1  
Gender       0.101
   Female 770 1674.4 ± 397.6 -3.8 ± 8.3  
   Male 748 1556.6 ± 399.3 14.9 ± 8.2  
Education       0.004
   ≤ 9 years 499 1736.7 ± 443.3 34.3 ± 10.2  
   10-12 years 727 1566.5 ± 372.9 -6.7 ± 8.4  
   > 12 years 288 1532.1 ± 353.0 -10.3 ± 13.3  
Married status       0.398
   Not currently married 241 1660.5 ± 446.4 17.0 ± 14.6  
   Married 1268 1607.3 ± 393.3 3.6 ± 6.3  
lifestyle factors       
Smoking       0.346
   Never 1121 1603.1 ± 415.1 2.4 ± 6.7  
   Former/Current 397 1653.9 ± 363.2 14.9 ± 11.3  
Drinking       0.553
   Never 1067 1623.6 ± 416.8 7.9 ± 6.9  
   Former/Current 451 1599.4 ± 367.0 0.4 ± 10.6  
Medication       
Hypertension       < 0.001
   No 1197 1541.9 ± 355.3 -8.6 ± 6.6  
   Yes 304 1903.1 ± 440.7 68.8 ± 13.6  
Hyperlipidemia       0.002
   No 1401 1604.9 ± 397.8 1.3 ± 6.0  
   Yes 93 1779.7 ± 397.3 77.7 ± 23.3  
Diabetes       < 0.001
   No 1415 1591.3 ± 382.0 -3.8 ± 5.9  
   Yes 94 1997.6 ± 476.7 146.7 ± 23.7  
  1. SD, standard deviation; SE, standard error
  2. * The difference in each variables was calculated by analysis of covariance with baPWV at baseline as covariate.