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Table 1 Theoretical* basis of the Transform-Us! intervention and links to program objectives

From: A cluster-randomized controlled trial to reduce sedentary behavior and promote physical activity and health of 8-9 year olds: The Transform-Us! Study

Constructs Mediators or determinants Program Objectives
Intrapersonal   
Confidence Self-efficacy Improve confidence in ability to be active or reduce sedentary time
Preference Enjoyment Increase enjoyment and preference for physical activity
Expectations Benefits/barriers Increase knowledge of benefits & strategies to overcome barriers
Expectancies Evaluation of anticipated outcome Alter perception of pros and cons of being more active
Skills Self-management Self-rewards, self instructions, TV viewing styles
Behavioral rehearsal Self-monitoring & contracting Goal setting, contracting with others, rewards
Interpersonal   
Observational learning Modelling by parents/siblings Encourage parents & siblings to reduce their own SB & increase PA
Social support Modelling/social support Encourage parents & siblings to support child to spend less time in SB & more time in PA; teachers encourage/support PA during recess/lunch
Social structure Rules Parents enforce rules regarding limiting screen time at home, during meals, during daylight hours
Environmental   
Imposed environment Availability Increase the amount of PA equipment available at school & home. Reduce the availability of TVs/computers/electronic games at home
Imposed environment Access Increase access/opportunities for PA at school & at home. Decrease access to TV/computers/electronic games at home
Imposed environment Policy Interrupted sitting during class-time; presence of supervising teachers during recess/lunch
  1. * Based on social cognitive theory [26], behavioral choice theory [28], ecological systems theory [20]