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Table 1 Theoretical* basis of the Transform-Us! intervention and links to program objectives

From: A cluster-randomized controlled trial to reduce sedentary behavior and promote physical activity and health of 8-9 year olds: The Transform-Us! Study

Constructs Mediators or determinants Program Objectives
Confidence Self-efficacy Improve confidence in ability to be active or reduce sedentary time
Preference Enjoyment Increase enjoyment and preference for physical activity
Expectations Benefits/barriers Increase knowledge of benefits & strategies to overcome barriers
Expectancies Evaluation of anticipated outcome Alter perception of pros and cons of being more active
Skills Self-management Self-rewards, self instructions, TV viewing styles
Behavioral rehearsal Self-monitoring & contracting Goal setting, contracting with others, rewards
Observational learning Modelling by parents/siblings Encourage parents & siblings to reduce their own SB & increase PA
Social support Modelling/social support Encourage parents & siblings to support child to spend less time in SB & more time in PA; teachers encourage/support PA during recess/lunch
Social structure Rules Parents enforce rules regarding limiting screen time at home, during meals, during daylight hours
Imposed environment Availability Increase the amount of PA equipment available at school & home. Reduce the availability of TVs/computers/electronic games at home
Imposed environment Access Increase access/opportunities for PA at school & at home. Decrease access to TV/computers/electronic games at home
Imposed environment Policy Interrupted sitting during class-time; presence of supervising teachers during recess/lunch
  1. * Based on social cognitive theory [26], behavioral choice theory [28], ecological systems theory [20]