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Table 5 Adverse family psychosocial characteristics, individual problems, and mortality among females.

From: Family psychosocial characteristics influencing criminal behaviour and mortality - possible mediating factors: a longitudinal study of male and female subjects in the Stockholm Birth Cohort

  Mortality (1981-2009)
  Crudea
(95% CI)
Model 1b
(95% CI)
Model 2c
(95% CI)
Model 3d
(95% CI)
Model 4e
(95% CI)
Model 5f
(95% CI)
Model 6g
(95% CI)
Model 7h
(95% CI)
Model 8i
(95% CI)
PAF
Family psychosocial characteristics           
Father's criminality (1953-1959)           
No (ref.) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00  
Yes 1.87 (1.11-3.15) 1.45 (0.84-2.52) 1.41 (0.81-2.45) 1.31 (0.75-2.27) 1.36 (0.78-2.36) 1.16 (0.65-2.06) 1.38 (0.79-2.40) 1.17 (0.66-2.07) 1.16 (0.65-2.07) -0.16%
Father's alcohol abuse (1953-1965)           
No (ref.) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00  
Yes 2.22 (1.31-3.75) 1.57 (0.89-2.77) 1.53 (0.87-2.69) 1.26 (0.71-2.24) 1.50 (0.84-2.65) 1.26 (0.70-2.26) 1.46 (0.83-2.57) 1.14 (0.63-2.06) 1.27 (0.71-2.29) -0.15%
Parents' mental problems (1953-1965)           
No (ref.) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00  
Yes 2.86 (1.87-4.38) 2.51 (1.61-3.92) 2.40 (1.53-3.76) 2.21 (1.40-3.49) 2.31 (1.47-3.65) 2.15 (1.36-3.40) 2.19 (1.39-3.45) 2.14 (1.34-3.37) 2.13 (1.35-3.40) -0.93%
Father's occupational class (1963)           
Upper and upper middle class (ref.) 1.00   1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00  
Middle class 0.86 (0.59-1.25)   0.82 (0.56-1.20) 0.83 (0.57-1.21) 0.82 (0.56-1.20) 0.78 (0.53-1.13) 0.82 (0.56-1.19) 0.79 (0.54-1.15) 0.77 (0.53-1.13)  
Working class 1.16 (0.81-1.68)   1.05 (0.72-1.52) 0.99 (0.68-1.45) 1.03 (0.71-1.50) 0.94 (0.65-1.38) 0.99 (0.68-1.44) 0.92 (0.63-1.35) 0.94 (0.64-1.37)  
Others 1.87 (0.92-3.81)   1.43 (0.69-2.97) 1.32 (0.63-2.76) 1.39 (0.66-2.90) 1.34 (0.64-2.81) 1.41 (0.68-2.93) 1.30 (0.62-2.73) 1.34 (0.64-2.80) -0.26%
Individual problems           
All crimes (1966-1980)           
No (ref.) 1.00    1.00     1.00   
Yes 4.15 (3.01-5.73)    3.74 (2.69-5.20)     2.25 (1.51-3.35)   -1.57%
Violent crimes (1966-1980)           
No (ref.) 1.00     1.00     1.00  
Yes 8.91 (5.01-15.8)     8.03 (4.47-14.4)     2.85 (1.44-5.65) -0.30%
Alcohol and/or drug use (1966-1972)           
No (ref.) 1.00      1.00   1.00 1.00  
Yes 8.02 (5.45-11.8)      7.07 (4.74-10.6)   3.70 (2.17-6.31) 4.63 (2.77-7.75) -0.92%
Mental problems (1966-1972)           
No (ref.) 1.00       1.00 1.00 1.00  
Yes 7.08 (4.16-12.1)       5.88 (3.41-10.1) 1.59 (0.82-3.10) 1.61 (0.82-3.17) -0.17%
  1. Odds ratios from logistic regression analysis (n = 6,989).
  2. a No adjustment, b Mutual adjustment for family psychosocial characteristics, c Mutual adjustment for family psychosocial characteristics + father's occupational class, d Mutual adjustment for family psychosocial characteristics + father's occupational class + all crimes, e Mutual adjustment for family psychosocial characteristics + father's occupational class + violent crimes
  3. f Mutual adjustment for family psychosocial characteristics + father's occupational class + alcohol and/or drug use, g Mutual adjustment for family psychosocial characteristics + father's occupational class + mental problems, h Mutual adjustment for family psychosocial characteristics + father's occupational class + all crimes + alcohol and/or drug use + mental problems
  4. i Mutual adjustment for family psychosocial characteristics + father's occupational class + violent crimes + alcohol and/or drug use + mental problems