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Table 1 Sample characteristics in the four catchment areas, with the effects of Socio Economic Status (SES), adjusting for city

From: Male gender preference, female gender disadvantage as risk factors for psychological morbidity in Pakistani women of childbearing age - a life course perspective

Catchment area Low SES
Islamabad
High SES Islamabad Low SES Rawalpindi High SES Rawalpindi  
  N = 150 N = 125 N = 125 N = 125 Effect of SES
(Low vs. High - Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios with 95% CI)
Sociodemographic circumstances      
Age in years,
mean (SD)
27.1 (5.2) 25.2 (4.8) 26.5 (4.8) 26.8 (4.6)  
Married 102 (68.0%) 54 (43.2%) 74 (59.2%) 74 (59.2%) 1.7 (1.3-2.5)
Nuclear (vs. joint) household 112 (74.7%) 66 (52.8%) 57 (45.6%) 57 (45.6%) 1.6 (1.1-2.3)
Employed outside of the home 18 (12.0%) 30 (24.0%) 23 (18.4%) 33 (26.4%) 0.5 (0.3-0.8)
Psychological morbidity      
SRQ score > = 8 124 (82.7%) 56 (44.8%) 78 (62.4%) 33 (26.4%) 5.2 (3.5-7.6)
SRQ score, mean (SD) 11.4 (4.1) 7.6 (3.6) 9.6 (5.0) 5.3 (3.5) F = 125.7, P < 0.001
Gender disadvantage      
Parents would have preferred a boy 69 (46.0%) 34 (27.2%) 87 (69.9%) 27 (21.6%) 4.0 (2.8-5.9)
Parents favoured male relatives 18 (12.0%) 13 (10.4%) 67 (53.6%) 12 (9.6%) 4.2 (2.6-6.7)
Male relatives
had more access to health and education
17 (11.3%) 4 (3.2%) 10 (8.0%) 4 (3.3%) 3.2 (1.4-7.3)
Parental Bonding Interview
Care, mean (SD)
11.2 (2.4) 14.6 (3.9) 11.7 (2.4) 16.6 (3.4) F = 226.2, P < 0.001
Parental Bonding Interview
Overprotection,
mean (SD)
22.1 (3.6) 15.2 (3.3) 22.1 (3.1) 16.0 (3.8) F = 450.3, P < 0.001
Education (ten
years or less)
121 (80.6%) 7 (5.6%) 67 (53.6%) 2 (1.6%) 70.6 (32.7-152.3)
Age at marriage in years, mean (SD) 18.7 (1.5) 23.6 (3.1) 19.3 (1.9) 22.8 (1.8) F = 300.6, P < 0.001
Marital satisfaction,
mean (SD)
-4.3 (7.0) -0.7 (8.5) -4.2 (9.2) 3.1 (9.3) F = 30.5, P < 0.001
Autonomy,
mean (SD)
1.0 (0.9) 2.8 (1.2) 1.4 (1.1) 2.4 (1.2) F = 73.8, P < 0.001
Socioeconomic status      
Household income,
mean (SD)
7300 (3403) 66592 (47689) 9918 (3850) 47705 (31891) F = 140.4, P < 0.001
Household wealth index, mean (SD) 1.7 (1.5) 7.5 (2.7) 2.9 (1.8) 7.8 (2.1) F = 310.4, P < 0.001
Other potential confounders      
Life events (one or more) 107 (71.3%) 79 (63.2%) 93 (74.4%) 77 (61.6%) 1.6 (1.1-2.3)
Confiding/emotional support, mean (SD) 22.1 (3.8) 25.1 (4.4) 23.6 (3.7) 25.9 (4.0) F = 56.7, P < 0.001
Number of children, mean (SD)
(married women only)
3.1 (1.7) 1.7 (1.4) 2.4 (1.7) 2.0 (1.4) F = 11.8, P < 0.001
No son (married women only) 20 (19.6%) 27 (50.0%) 25 (33.8%) 28 (37.8%) 0.5 (0.3-0.8)