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Table 3 Awareness and knowledge of STDs reported in 14 of the 15 studies included in the review

From: Awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among school-going adolescents in Europe: a systematic review of published literature

Question/Item assessed in studies Females
% (reference)
Males
% (reference)
Females and males
% (reference)
HPV
Heard of HPV (identification from list of STDs or direct question, 'Have you heard of HPV?') 71.6% (Pelucchi et al.) [49]
16.4% (Gottvall et al.) [46]
51.2% (Pelucchi et al.) [49]
9.6% (Gottvall et al., 2009) [46]
66.6% (Pelucchi et al.)** [49]
13.5% (Gottvall et al.)** [46]
5.4% (Höglund et al.) [47]
33% (Woodhall et al.) [45]
Heard of HPV (open question - 'Which STDs do you know/have you heard of?')    0.2% (Höglund et al.) [47]
Heard of HPV vaccine 9.2% (Gottvall et al.) [46] 1.1% (Gottvall et al.) [46] 5.8% (Gottvall et al.)** [46]
1.1% (Höglund et al.) [47]
Participants who knew that HPV is sexually transmitted 64.9% (Pelucchi et al.) [49]
12.1% (Gottvall et al.) [46]
47.4% (Pelucchi et al.) [49]
5.4% (Gottvall et al.) [46]
60.6% (Pelucchi et al.) [49]
9.2% (Gottvall et al.)** [46]
2.9% (Höglund et al.) [47]
Participants who knew that HPV is a risk factor for cervical cancer (closed question) 11.8% (Gottvall et al.) [46] 3.1% (Gottvall et al.) [46] 8.1% (Gottvall et al.) [46]
1.2% (Höglund et al.) [47]
Participants aware that aim of HPV vaccination is to prevent cervical cancer 53.9% (Pelucchi et al.) [49] 32.1% (Pelucchi et al.) [49] 48.6% (Pelucchi et al.)** [49]
Participants who thought that aim of HPV vaccination is to prevent an STD 8.6% (Pelucchi et al.) [49] 7.2%(Pelucchi et al., 2010) [49] 8.3% (Pelucchi et al.) [49]
Subjective rating of risk of contracting HPV 45% perceived at risk (Pelucchi et al.) [49]
11.8% do not believe will be infected (Gottvall et al.) [46]
26% perceived at risk (Pelucchi et al.) [49]
24.5% do not believe will be infected (Gottvall et al.) [46]
17.3% do not believe will be infected (Gottvall et al.)** [46]
HIV
Heard of HIV (identification from list of STDs or direct question) 97.2% among year 9 and 100% among year 11 pupils (Garside et al.) [42] 97.0% among year 9 and 96.2% among year 11 pupils (Garside et al.) [42] 97.7% (Garside et al.) [42]
100% (Tyden et al.) 91% [38]
(Fogarty) [36]
Heard of HIV (open question - which STDs do you know/have you heard of?)    88% (Höglund et al.) [47]
Participants who knew that you can not tell by looking at someone if they have HIV    Overall 53% (Goodwin et al.)2 [43]
Participants who knew that HIV is caused by a virus    91% (Eriksson et al.) [41]
88% (Fogarty) [36]
Participants who knew that HIV is sexually transmitted 99% (Sachsenweger et al.) # [49]
97% (Goodwin et al.)1[43]
99% (Sachsenweger et al.) #[49]
86% (Goodwin et al.)1[43]
99% (Sachsenweger et al.) #[49]
81% (Höglund et al.) [47]
92% (Goodwin et al.)1[43]
99% (Eriksson et al.) [41]
95% (Fogarty) [36]
Participants who knew that sharing a needle with an HIV infected person may lead to infection with the virus 91% (Sachsenweger et al.) #[49]
72% (Goodwin et al.)1[43]
91% (Sachsenweger et al.) #[49]
62% (Goodwin et al.)1[43]
91% (Sachsenweger et al.) #[49]
68% (Goodwin et al.)1[43]
95% (Eriksson et al.) [41]
99% (Fogarty) [36]
Participants who knew that use of condoms can protect against contraction of HIV 83%(Goodwin et al.)1[43]
42% (Lunin et al.) [39]
86% (Goodwin et al.)1[43]
60% (Lunin et al.) [39]
99% (Sachsenweger et al.) #[49]
76% (Höglund et al.) [47]
84% (Goodwin et al.)1[43]
99% (Eriksson et al.) [41]
51% (Lunin et al., 1995)** [39]
94% (Fogarty) [36]
Participants who knew where to go for diagnosis/treatment/advice on HIV    22% aware of STD clinic and 32% of AIDS telephone service (Fogarty) [36]
Subjective rating of risk of contracting HIV 11% perceived themselves 'not at risk' (Lunin et al.) [39] 19% perceived themselves 'not at risk' (Lunin et al.) [39] 15% perceived themselves 'not at risk' (Lunin et al.)** [39]
Chlamydia
Heard of chlamydia (identification from list of STDs or direct question) 41.4% among year 9 and 22.7% among year 11 pupils (Garside et al.) [42]
79% (Tyden et al.) [38]
36.7% among year 9 and 13.2% among year 11 pupils (Garside et al.) [42]
60% (Tyden et al.) [38]
34% (Garside et al.)*** [42]
70% (Tyden et al.) [38]
91% in 1986, and 96% in 1988 survey (Andersson-Ellström et al.) [37]
Heard of chlamydia (open question - which STDs do you know/have you heard of?)    86% (Höglund et al.) [47]
Participants who knew that chlamydia can be symptom-free 51% in 1986, and 68% in 1988 survey (Andersson-Ellström et al.) [37] 28% in 1986, and 45% in 1988 survey (Andersson-Ellström et al.) [37] 46% (Höglund et al.) [47]
40% in 1986, and 56% in 1988 survey (Andersson-Ellström et al.)** [37]
Syphilis
Heard of syphilis (identification from list of STDs or direct question) 45.5% among year 9 and 47.0% among year 11 pupils (Garside et al.) [42] 43.4% among year 9 and 45.3% among year 11 pupils (Garside et al.) [42] 45% (Garside et al.) [42]
Gonorrhoea
Heard of gonorrhoea (identification from list of STDs or direct question) 51.0% among year 9 and 53.0% among year 11 pupils (Garside et al.) [42] 52.4% among year 9 and 60.4% among year 11 pupils (Garside et al.) [42] 53% (Garside et al.) [42]
≥ 84% (Tyden et al.) [38]
98%, 1986 survey (Andersson-Ellström et al.) [37]
Heard of gonorrhoea (open question - which STDs do you know/have you heard of?)    50% (Höglund et al.) [47]
Herpes
Heard of herpes (identification from list of STDs or direct question) 52.4% among year 9 and 75.8% among year 11 pupils (Garside et al.) [42] 53.6% among year 9 and 71.7% among year 11 pupils (Garside et al.) [42] 59.1% (Garside et al.)*** [42]
90%, 1986 survey (Andersson-Ellström et al.) [37]
56% (Tyden et al.) [38]
Heard of herpes (open question - which STDs do you know/have you heard of?)    64% (Höglund et al.) [47]
STDs in general
Participants who knew that STDs in general can be symptom-free 53.8% among year 9 and 60.0% among year 11 pupils (Garside et al.) [42] 64.2% among year 9 and 60.4% among year 11 pupils (Garside et al.) [42] 59.7% (Garside et al.) [42]
Participants who knew that use of condoms can protect against contraction of STDs in general 15%, 1986 survey (Andersson-Ellström et al.) [37]
34%, 1988 survey (Andersson-Ellström et al.) [37]
100% (Andersson-Ellström et al.) [40]
27%, 1986 survey (Andersson-Ellström et al.) [37]
52%, 1988 survey (Andersson-Ellström et al.) [37]
20%, 1986 survey (Andersson-Ellström et al.)** [37]
43%, 1988 survey (Andersson-Ellström et al.)** [37]
100% (Tyden et al.) [38]
Subjective rating of risk of contracting an STD in general 32%, 1986 survey (Andersson-Ellström et al., 1991) [37]
24%, 1988 survey (Andersson-Ellström et al.) [37]
16%, 1986 survey (Andersson-Ellström et al.) [37]
24%, 1988 survey (Andersson-Ellström et al.) [37]
55% "low" perceived susceptibility (Woodhall et al.)* [45]
Reported use of condoms
Participants who reported using condoms at first sexual intercourse 50% (Tyden et al.) [38]
65% (Gottvall et al.) [46]
40% (Tyden et al.) [38]
65% (Gottvall et al.) [46]
45% (Tyden et al.) [38]
65% (Gottvall et al.) [46]
61% (Höglund et al.) [47]
Participants who reported using condoms at last sexual intercourse 26% (Tyden et al.) [38] 38% (Tyden et al.) [38] 31% (Tyden et al.) [38]
  1. * combined figure given for HPV and chlamydia
  2. ** statistically significant differences in awareness/knowledge between boys and girls
  3. *** statistically significant differences in awareness/knowledge between year 9 and year 11 pupils
  4. # Publication in German